- Politics of Indonesia
The politics of
Indonesiatakes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Indonesiais both head of stateand head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive poweris exercised by the government. Legislative poweris vested in both the governmentand the two People's Representative Councils. The Judiciaryis independent of the executive and the legislature.The 1945 constitution provided for a limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicialpower. The governmental system has been described as "presidential with parliamentary characteristics." Following the Indonesian 1998 Revolutionand the resignation of President Suharto, several political reforms were set in motion.
A constitutional reform process has been underway since
1999, and has already produced several important changes.
Among these are
term limits of up to two five-year terms for the Presidentand Vice President, and measures to institute checks and balances. The highest state institution is the People's Consultative Assembly(MPR), whose functions included electing the president and vice president (since 2004 the president is elected directly by the people), establishing broad guidelines of state policy, and amending the constitution. The 695-member MPR includes all 550 members of the People's Representative Council(DPR) (the House of Representatives) plus 130 "regional representatives" elected by the twenty-six provincial parliaments and sixty-five appointed members from societal groups.
The DPR, which is the premier legislative institution, originally included 462 members elected through a mixed proportional/district representational system and thirty-eight appointed members of the armed forces (TNI) and police (POLRI). TNI/POLRI representation in the DPR was ended before the general election in
2004and will end in the MPR in 2009. Societal group representation in the MPR was eliminated in 2004 through further constitutional change. Military domination of regional administration is gradually breaking down, with new regulations prohibiting active-duty officers from holding political office.
Having served as rubberstamp bodies in the past, the DPR and MPR have gained considerable power and are increasingly assertive in oversight of the executive branch. Under constitutional changes in
2004, the MPR became a bicameral legislature, with the creation of the Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD) or Senate, in which each province is represented by four members, although its legislative powers are more limited than those of the DPR. Through his appointed cabinet, the president retains the authority to conduct the administration of the government, but some observers believe the balance of power has shifted too far in the direction of the legislature.Fact|date=February 2007
A general election in June 1999 produced the first freely elected national, provincial, and regional parliaments in over forty years. In October 1999 the MPR elected a compromise candidate,
Abdurrahman Wahid, as the country's fourth president, and Megawati Sukarnoputri— a daughter of Sukarno, the country's first president — as the vice president. Megawati's PDI-P party had won the largest share of the vote (34%) in the general election, while Golkar, the dominant party during the Soeharto era, came in second (22%). Several other, mostly Islamic parties won shares large enough to be seated in the DPR.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
20 October 2004
Jusuf Kalla Golkar 20 October 2004The president and vice president are selected by vote of the citizens for five-year terms. Prior to 2004, they were chosen by People's Consultative Assembly. The last election was held 20 September2004. The president heads the United Indonesia Cabinet(Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu)The President of Indonesiais directly-elected for five-year terms, and is the head of state, commander-in-chiefof Indonesian armed forces and responsible for domestic governance and policy-making and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who don't have to be elected members of the legislature.
People's Representative Council("Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat") has 550 members, elected for a five year term by proportional representationin multi-member constituencies. The other chamber of the People's Consultative Assembly("Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat") is the Regional Representatives Council("Dewan Perwakilan Daerah"). Following elections in 2004, the MPR became a bicameral parliament, with the creation of the DPD as its second chamber in an effort to increase regional representation.
Political parties and elections
The General Election Committee "(KPU - Komisi Pemilihan Umum)" is the body responsible for running both parliamentary and presidential elections in Indonesia. Prior to the General Election of 2004, the KPU was made up of members who were also members of political parties, however members of the KPU must now be non-partisan.
The "Supreme Court" ("Mahkamah Agung") is the highest level of the judicial branch. Its judges are appointed by the president.
During the regime of president Suharto, Indonesia built strong relations with the
United Statesand had difficult relations with the People's Republic of Chinaowing to Indonesia's anti-communist policies and domestic tensions with the Chinese community. It received international condemnation for its annexation of East Timorin 1978. Indonesia is a founding member of the Association of South East Asian Nations, and thereby a member of both ASEAN+3and the East Asia Summit. Since the 1980s, Indonesia has worked to develop close political and economic ties between South East Asian nations, and is also influential in the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Indonesia was heavily criticized between 1998 and 1999 for allegedly suppressing human rights in East Timor, and for supporting violence against the East Timorese following the latter's secession and independence in 1999. Since 2001, the government of Indonesia has co-operated with the U.S. in cracking down on Islamic fundamentalismand terrorist groups.
The Black Road" is a 2005 documentary by William Nessen. The film was shot on location in Aceh, and reports on the Province’s battle for independence from Indonesia.
* O'Rourke, Kevin. 2002. "Reformasi: the struggle for power in post-Soeharto Indonesia". Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-754-8
* Schwarz, Adam. 2000. "A nation in waiting: Indonesia's search for stability". Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3650-3
Government Administration in Indonesia
Foreign relations of Indonesia
List of Presidents of Indonesia
List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia
Flag of Indonesia
Constitution of Indonesia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… … Universalium
Indonesia — Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia … Wikipedia
Indonesia–Timor Leste Commission of Truth and Friendship — The Indonesia Timor Leste Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF) is a truth commission established by Indonesia and East Timor in August 2005. Its mandate is to investigate human rights violations by Indonesia and its armed forces during the… … Wikipedia
Politics of Noam Chomsky — Noam Chomsky is a widely known intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments. Noam Chomsky describes himself as a libertarian socialist, a sympathizer of anarcho syndicalism and is… … Wikipedia
Politics of Malaysia — Malaysia This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Malaysia … Wikipedia
Indonesia Raya — This article is about the national anthem. For other uses, see Indonesia Raya (disambiguation). Indonesia Raya English: Great Indonesia One of the two original publications of what is now known as Indonesia Raya in the 10 November 1928… … Wikipedia
Politics of Hong Kong — Politics and government of Hong Kong … Wikipedia
Politics of Brunei — Brunei This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Brunei … Wikipedia
Politics of Burma — Burma (Myanmar) This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Burma … Wikipedia
Politics of Lebanon — Lebanon This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Lebanon … Wikipedia