- Arabic maqam
Arabic maqām ( _ar. مقام; pl. "maqāmāt" مقامات or "maqams") is the system of melodic modes used in traditional
Arabic music, which is mainly melodic. The word "maqam" in Arabic means place, location or rank. The Arabic "maqam" is a melody type. Each "maqam" is built on a scale, and carries a tradition that defines its habitual phrases, important notes, melodic development and modulation. Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the "maqam" system. "Maqams" can be realized with either vocal or instrumental music, and do not include a rhythmic component.
The designation "maqam" appeared for the first time in the treatises written in the fourteenth century by Al-Sheikh Al-Safadi and Abdulqadir Al-Maraghi, and has since then been used as a technical term in Arabic music. The "maqam" is a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in
North Africa, the Near Eastand Central Asia. In this area we can distinguish three main musical cultures which all belong to the modal family, namely the Turkish, the Greek, the Persian and the Arabic.
A strong similarity exists between these three families in which the same modal structure is known as
Makamin Turkish music, Dastgahin Persian music, Mugamin Azerbaijan, Meqam in Kurdish music, Makam in Assyrian music, Shash Maqom in Uzbek musicand Muqamin Uyghur music.
The maqam was preceded by seven centuries, by the
Dastgahof Persia, developed by Barbod. Many Arabic "maqams" can trace their names to the Persian language, e.g. Nikriz, Farahfaza, Suzidil, Suznak, Rast, Sikah (from Se-Gah), Jiharkah (from Chehar-Gah) and Nairuz (from Nowruz). The reverse is also true, with Persian Gooshehnames taken from Arabic, e.g. Hejaz (from Hijaz), Hoseynî (from Husseini), Oshshagh (from 'Ushshaq) and Hodi. Similarly, many Arabic maqam names come from the Turkish Makam, such as Sultani Yekah, Buselik and Bastanikar, while the following Turkish Makamnames trace their origin to Arabic: Hiçāz, Irak, Huseyni, Sűnbűle and Uşşak.
Arabic "maqams" are based on a musical scale of 7 notes that repeats at the
octave. Some "maqams" have 2 or more alternative scales (e.g. Rast, Nahawand and Hijaz). "Maqam" scales in traditional Arabic music are microtonal, not based on a twelve-tone equal-tempered musical tuning system, as is the case in modern Western Music. Most "maqam" scales include a perfect fifthor a perfect fourth(or both), and all octavesare perfect. The remaining notes in a "maqam" scale may or may not exactly fall on semitones. For this reason "maqam" scales are mostly taught orally, and by extensive listening to the traditional Arabic musicrepertoire.
Since microtonal intervals are impractical to accurately notate, a simplified
musical notationsystem was adopted in Arabic music at the turn of the 20th century. Starting with a chromatic scale, the Arabic scale is divided into 24 equal quarter tones, where a quarter tone equals half a semitonein a 12 tone equal-tempered scale. In this notation system all notes in a "maqam" scale are rounded to the nearest quarter tone.
This system of notation is not exact since it eliminates microtonal details, but is very practical because it allows "maqam" scales to be notated using Western standard notation. Quarter tones can be notated using the half-flat sign . When transcribed with this notation system some "maqam" scales happen to include quarter tones, while others don't.
In practice, "maqams" are not performed in all chromatic keys, and are more rigid to transpose than scales in Western music, primarily because of the technical limitations of Arabic instruments. For this reason, half-sharps rarely occur in "maqam" scales, and the most used half-flats are E.
The 24-tone system is entirely a notational convention and does not affect the actual precise intonation of the notes performed. Practicing Arab musicians, while using the nomenclature of the 24-tone system ("half-flats" and "half-sharps"), still perform the finer microtonal details which have been passed down through oral tradition.
"Maqam" scales that do not include quarter tones (e.g. Nahawand, Ajam) can be performed on equal-tempered instruments such as the
piano, however such instruments cannot faithfully reproduce the microtonal details of the "maqam" scale. "Maqam" scales can be faithfully performed either on fretless instruments (e.g. the oudor the violin), or on instruments that allow a sufficient degree of tunability and microtonal control (e.g. the nay or the qanun). On fretted instruments with steel strings, microtonal control can be achieved by string bending, as when playing blues.
The exact intonation of every maqam scale changes with the historical period, as well as the geographical region (as is the case with linguistic accents, for example). For this reason, and because it is impractical to precisely and accurately notate microtonal variations from a twelve-tone equal tempered scale, "maqam" scales are in practice learned orally.
Maqam scales are made up of smaller sets of consecutive notes that have a very recognizable melody and convey a distinctive mood. Such a set is called jins (pl. ajnas), ( _ar. جنس) meaning gender or kind. In most cases a "jins" is made up of 4 consecutive notes (a
tetrachord), although "ajnas" of 3 consecutive notes (a trichord) or a 5 consecutive notes (a pentachord) also exist.
Ajnas are the building blocks of a "maqam" scale. A "maqam" scale has a lower (or first) "jins" and an upper (or second) "jins". In most cases maqams are classified into families or branches based on their lower "jins". The upper "jins" may start on the ending note of the lower "jins" or on the note following that. In some cases the upper and lower "ajnas" may overlap. The starting note of the upper "jins" is called the dominant, and is the second most important note in that scale after the
tonic. "Maqam" scales often includes secondary "ajnas" that start on notes other than the tonic or the dominant. Secondary "ajnas" are highlighted in the course of modulation.
References on Arabic music theory often differ on the classification of "ajnas". There is no consensus on a definitive list of all "ajnas", their names or their sizes. However the majority of references agree on the basic 9 "ajnas", which also make up the main 9 "maqam" families. The following is the list of the basic 9 "ajnas" notated with Western standard notation (all notes are rounded to the nearest quarter tone):
(for more detail see [http://www.maqamworld.com/ajnas.html Arabic Maqam Ajnas] )
*Ajam - Ajam (عجم), Jiharkah (جهاركاه), Shawq Afza ( شوق افزا or شوق أفزا)
*Sikah - Bastanikar (بسته نكار), Huzam (هزام), Iraq (عراق), Mustaar (مستعار), Rahat El Arwah (راحة الارواح or راحة الأرواح), Sikah (سيكاه), Sikah Baladi (سيكاه بلدي)
*Bayati - Bayatayn (بیاتین), Bayati (بياتي), Bayati Shuri (بياتي شوري), Husseini (حسيني), Nahfat (نهفت)
*Nahawand - Farahfaza (فرحفزا), Nahawand (نهاوند), Nahawand Murassah (نهاوند مرصّع or نهاوند مرصع), Ushaq Masri (عشاق مصري)
*Rast - Mahur (ماهور), Nairuz (نوروز), Rast (راست), Suznak (سوزناك), Yakah (يكاه)
*Hijaz - Hijaz (حجاز), Hijaz Kar (حجاز كار), Shadd Araban (شد عربان), Shahnaz (شهناز or شاهناز), Suzidil (سوزدل), Zanjaran (زنجران)
*Saba - Saba (صبا), Saba Zamzam (صبا زمزم)
*Kurd - Kurd (كرد), Hijaz Kar Kurd (حجاز كار كرد)
*Nawa Athar - Athar Kurd (أثر كرد), Nawa Athar (نوى أثر or نوى اثر), Nikriz (نكريز)
Generally speaking, each "maqam" evokes a different emotion in the listener. At a more basic level, each "jins" conveys a different mood or color. For this reason "maqams" of the same family share a common mood since they start with the same "jins". There is no consensus on exactly what the mood of each "maqam" or "jins" is. Some references describe "maqam" moods using very vague and subjective terminology (e.g. "maqams" evoking 'love', 'femininity', 'pride' or 'distant desert'). However there has not been any serious research using scientific methodology on a diverse sample of listeners (whether Arab or non-Arab) proving that they feel the same emotion when hearing the same "maqam".
Attempting the same exercise in
Western musicwould mean relating a mood to the major and minormodes. In that case there is a wider consensus that the minor scaleis sadder and the major scaleis happier.
Modulation is a technique used during the melodic development of a "maqam". In simple terms it means changing from one "maqam" to another (compatible or closely related) "maqam". This involves using a new musical scale. A long musical piece can modulate over many "maqams" but usually ends with the starting "maqam" (in rare cases the purpose of the modulation is to actually end with a new "maqam"). A more subtle form of modulation within the same "maqam" is to shift the emphasis from one "jins" to another so as to imply a new "maqam".
Modulation adds a lot of interest to the music, and is present in almost every "maqam"-based melody. Modulations that are pleasing to the ear are created by adhering to compatible combinations of "ajnas" and "maqams" long established in traditional
Arabic music. Although such combinations are often documented in musical references, most experienced musicians learn them by extensive listening.
*el-Mahdi, Salah (1972). "La musique arabe : structures, historique, organologie". Paris, France: Alphonse Leduc, Editions Musicales. ISBN 2856890296.
*Lagrange, Frédéric (1996). "Musiques d'Égypte". Cité de la musique / Actes Sud. ISBN 2742707115.
*Maalouf, Shireen (2002). "History of Arabic music theory", Faculty of Music, Université Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Lebanon.
*Marcus, Scott Lloyd (1989). "Arab music theory in the modern period", Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Published by U.M.I. 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
*Racy, Ali Jihad (2003). "Making Music in the Arab World: The Culture and Artistry of Ṭarab". Publisher: Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521304148.
*Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). "The Music of the Arabs", trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0931340888.
*The Iraqi Maqam
The Weekly Maqam
* [http://www.maqamworld.com/ Maqam World]
** [http://www.maqamworld.com/maqamat.html Maqam World: What is a Maqam?]
* [http://www.oud.eclipse.co.uk/maqamat.html Arab Maqamat]
* [http://maqamat.net Maqamat]
* [http://www.cacac.org/arabic_music.htm Center for Arabic Culture: Arabic Music]
** [http://www.cacac.org/Arabic_Music_Theory.htm Center for Arabic Culture: Arabic Musical Theory]
* [http://www.muzaic.com/ Muzaic]
* [http://www.maqamlessons.com/ Maqam Lessons]
* [http://www.pizmonim.org Maqam Sampling (Jewish Sephardic)]
* [http://www.shashmakom.com Bukharian Maqam Singers]
* [http://www.saramusik.org/encyc/index.php/تصنيف:المقامات_والطبوع_والأنغام Historical audio examples from different maqams] , Arabic.
*fr [http://www.wikimusique.net/index.php/Maqam Maqam in Wiki Musique, author Mario Scolas - GNU]
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