England national football team manager


England national football team manager

The role of an England national football team manager was first established in May 1947 with the appointment of Walter Winterbottom.cite book | author=Nawrat, Chris & Hutchings, Steve | title = The Sunday Times Illustrated History of Football | publisher =Hamlyn| year=1996 | pages=p71 | id=ISBN 1-85613-341-9] Cite web|url=http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/History/Postings/2003/09/10877.htm| title=England Hall of Fame|publisher=The Football Association|accessdate = 2008-02-18] Before this, the England team was selected by the "International Selection Committee", a process by which the Football Association (FA) would select coaches and trainers from the league to prepare the side for single games, but where all decisions ultimately remained under the control of the committee. A 1–0 defeat by Switzerland prompted FA secretary Stanley Rous to raise Winterbottom from "National Director of coaching" to "Manager".Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/1826260.stm| title=Football mourns Sir Walter|publisher=The BBC|accessdate = 2008-02-18| date = 2002-02-17]

Fifteen men have occupied the post since its inception; three of those were in short-term caretaker manager roles: Joe Mercer (seven games in charge), Howard Wilkinson (two games, a year apart from one another) and Peter Taylor (one game). In comparison, Winterbottom held the position for the longest to date; a tenure of 16 years, comprising four World Cups and a total of 139 matches. Alf Ramsey is the only manager to have won a major tournament, winning the 1966 FIFA World Cup with his "Wingless Wonders".cite book | author=Nawrat, Chris & Hutchings, Steve | title = The Sunday Times Illustrated History of Football | publisher =Hamlyn| year=1996 | pages=p136, p137 | id=ISBN 1-85613-341-9] No other manager has progressed beyond the semi-finals of a major competition. Swedish coach Sven-Göran Eriksson became the first foreign manager of the team in 2001 amid much acrimony;Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/12/newsid_4535000/4535716.stm| title=2001: Swedish 'Iceman' starts England job|publisher=The BBC|accessdate = 2008-02-18] Cite web|url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/worldcup2006/story/0,,1786943,00.html| title=Anatomy of ... Sven-Goran Eriksson|publisher=Guardian.co.uk|accessdate = 2008-02-18|date=2006-06-04] he helped the team to three successive quarter finals in major championships. The incumbent is the Italian Fabio Capello, who replaced Steve McClaren in 2008 after England failed to qualify for the European Championships.

The England manager's job is subject to intense press scrutiny, often including revelations about the incumbent's private life. [Cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/european_football/article3248095.ece| title=Mystery of Sven-Goran Eriksson and the Italian faith healer|publisher=The Times Online|accessdate = 2008-02-18|date=2008-01-25] [Cite web|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/showbiz/showbiznews.html?in_article_id=360602&in_page_id=1773|date=2005-08-28| title=Nancy: Sven's going to dump me after World Cup|publisher=The Daily Mail|author=Ian Gallacher|accessdate = 2008-02-18] Due to the high level of expectation of both the public and media the role has been described as "the impossible job"Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sport/football/270361.stm| title=The impossible job|publisher=The BBC|accessdate = 2008-02-18| date=1999-02-05] Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/4041217.stm|title=The impossible job|publisher=The BBC|author=Matt Majendie|accessdate = 2008-02-18|date=2004-11-25] or compared in importance in national culture to that of the British Prime Minister.Cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/11/22/ufncandidates222.xml| title=Next England manager: The contenders|publisher=The Daily Telegraph|author=Steve Wilson|accessdate = 2008-02-18|date=2007-11-22] [Cite web|url=http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/16122007/3/capello-appointment-gets-england-talking.html| title=Capello appointment gets England talking|publisher=EuroSport|author=AFP|date2007-12-16|accessdate = 2008-02-18]

Position

Role

The England manager's role means he has sole responsibility for all on-the-field elements of the England team. Among other activities, this includes selecting the national team squad, the starting team, captain, tactics, substitutes and penalty-takers. Before 1946, the "Select Committee" (as appointed by the FA) would manage all issues barring the actual match day team selection, formation and tactics which was left to the head coach for the event. However interference was common, and not only from the FA. After the Second World War, with the relaunch of competitive international calendar, the manager's role expanded to take in all elements: from the selection of hotel and training camp venues, through to food and travel arrangements.

The manager is given a free hand in selecting his coaching ("back room") staff. For example, in 2008 Fabio Capello appointed four Italians (Franco Baldini as general manager, Italo Galbiati as assistant coach, Franco Tancredi as goalkeeping coach and Massimo Neri as fitness coach); [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/Coaches/
title = England Team Coaching Staff
accessdate = 2008-02-19
publisher = The Football Association
] he then appointed Englishman Stuart Pearce, the England Under 21s coach, as an England coach, with Capello stating "From the start I made it clear that I wanted an English coach as part of my coaching team." [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7218046.stm
title = Capello gives Pearce coaching job
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 2008-01-30
publisher = BBC Sport
]

The England manager may also involve himself in wider issues beyond the on-the-field team issues. The England manager is expected to advise the FA on how to approach the complex bidding system that surrounds the arrangement of fixtures for a qualifying campaign. [Cite web
url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2008/01/03/sfneng103.xml
title = Fabio Capello targets England fixture schedule
accessdate = 2008-02-26
date = 2008-01-03
publisher = The Daily Telegraph
author = Henry Winter
] On a more tactical level, a host of other details can be influenced; Capello is even believed to have instructed the Wembley ballboys to return balls at speed when they go out of play. [Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/news/matchreport/0,,2253355,00.html
title = England 2 - 1 Switzerland
publisher = The Guardian
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 2008-02-06
]

Appointment

The process of appointing a new England manager is undertaken by an FA committee, comprising board members and other high-ranking FA officials. For example, the members of the selection panel which appointed Sven-Göran Eriksson in 2001 were: chief executive Adam Crozier, chairman Geoff Thompson, vice-chairman Dave Richards, club chairmen and FA board members David Dein and Peter Ridsdale, and technical director Howard Wilkinson. [cite book |last=Lovejoy |first=Joe |title=Sven: The Final Reckoning |year=2004 |publisher=HarperCollins |id=ISBN 0-00-714069-Xp24]

National significance

The England manager's job has been compared in importance to that of the Prime Minister. Passion for football as England's national sport is coupled with patriotism and Wembley Stadium as the "home" of football. [Cite web
url = http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=26/overview.html| title = Hurst the hero for England in the home of football | publisher = FIFA| accessdate = 2008-02-19
] The dismissal or appointment of an England manager is front page news and the subject of intense interest. [Cite web
url = http://hotlist.uk.msn.com/sport/contenders-to-be-England's-next-manager.aspx
title = Who will be the next England manager?
accessdate = 2008-02-24
date = 2007-11-22
publisher = MSN
author = Lee Harvey
] Large sums are wagered on England winning, [Ladbrokes spokesman quoted, "... most bets are for England. People are betting with their hearts."Cite web
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2030964.stm
title = UK plc stops for the big game
publisher=BBC News
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 2002-06-07
] and during tournaments the country is festooned in St George's flags; during the 2006 World Cup, 27% of English adults bought a flag in one month alone. [Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/worldcup2006/comment/story/0,,1818174,00.html
title = Sour English stereotypes linger amid the flag-waving
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 2006-07-12
publisher = The Guardian
author = David Conn
] Shops and offices will be deserted as vast numbers of people watch the game. [During the 2006 World Cup, "On Saturday, the day of the Paraguay match, the number of people shopping in central London fell by 23%, according to analysts Footfall." Cite web| url = http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=409929&in_page_id=2
title = Storm over World Cup sickies
publisher = thisismoney.co.uk
date = 2006-06-25
accessdate = 2008-02-19
author = Jonathan Prynn
] [ Research in 2006 suggested that 13% of English workers "have called in sick to watch a World Cup match, or to recover from match-related drinking the night before." Cite web | url = http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/2006/06/06/35736/employee-relations-how-to-deal-with-world-cup-fever.html
accessdate = 2008-02-19
title = Employee relations: How to deal with World Cup fever
publisher =Personneltoday.com
date =2006-06-06
]

The England manager's job is made more complex by his dependence on the co-operation of clubs and their managers in releasing players for friendlies, and "club versus country" conflict is said to have happened when permission is refused, given reluctantly, or negotiated. [Cite web
url = http://www.setanta.com/en/TV-and-Entertainment/Entertainment/XI-at-11/The-XI-at-11-Club-vs-Country-row/
publisher = Setanta
accessdate = 2008-02-24
title = The XI at 11: Club vs Country rows
date = 2007-09-06
author = Joseph Caron Dawe
] There are also repeated comments that the length of the English season (the top flight plays 38 league matches) is unhelpful for preparing tired players for major tournaments, but the self-interest of the Premier League makes a reduction in the number of games unlikely, [cite news | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/5061302.stm | title = Fifa wants 18-team Premier League | publisher = The BBC |accessdate = 2008-02-24 | date = 2006-06-08] particularly in light of the 2008 proposal for Game 39, a match played between Premier League clubs outside the country. This combination of factors, coupled with England's mediocre record in major championships has led to the England manager's job being described as the "impossible job".

History

Full-time era begins

Before 1946, the England national football team had been under the leadership of a Football Association official and a trainer, usually from a London club. [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20020225/ai_n12604685
title = Football: Wealth of Winterbottom's legacy almost impossible to
publisher = The Independent
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2002-02-25
author = Graham Kelly
] Appointed in 1946, initially as chief coach, Walter Winterbottom had been a member of the FA "International Selection Committee". The England squad was selected by an FA committee during his tenure, with Winterbottom's role restricted to selecting the starting team together with the coaching and tactics. In his first game as manager, he led England to a 7–2 victory over Ireland at Windsor Park, Belfast in the 1946–47 British Home Championship.Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/NewsAndFeatures/Postings/2007/05/EnglandManagers
title = Walter Winterbottom - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] Success in the Home Championship in 1950 resulted in England's qualification to the 1950 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. During the tournament, England suffered a shock defeat against the United States, [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/1359582.stm
title = Sir Walter: A life in football
publisher = BBC Sport
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2002-02-17
] and went out of the tournament with another 1–0 defeat, this time to Spain. England experienced another surprise upset under Winterbottom's guidance in 1953 when Hungary defeated England 6–3 at Wembley Stadium. Winterbottom said afterwards, "... The press tended to think we would win easily, but I tried to point out that the Hungarians were actually a great side." [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19960520/ai_n14039541
title = Beware the example of Hungary
accessdate =2008-02-14
date = 1996-05-20
publisher = The Independent
author = Ken Jones
] He guided England to first place in the 1954 British Home Championship, which qualified the team for the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland, but saw his side knocked out in the quarter-finals, going down 4–2 against Uruguay. Four wins from four matches enabled England's qualification for the 1958 World Cup only for Winterbottom's side to fail in the group play-off stage, losing 1–0 to USSR. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/Archive/matchstats.html?m=325
title = World Cup finals group play-off, Nya Ullevi, Gothenburg, 17 June 1958
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] England lost to Brazil in the quarter-final of the 1962 World Cup in Chile and, under attack from the British press, [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990202/ai_n14214549
title = Football: How it always ends in tears
publisher = The Independent
accessdate =2008-02-14
date = 1999-02-02
author = Phil Shaw
] Winterbottom resigned five months later. He remains the longest serving manager of England.

World Cup success

Alf Ramsey took control of the team in 1962, [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/1826953.stm
title = England's recipe for success
publisher = BBC Sport
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2002-02-18
] but unlike Winterbottom, Ramsey had been a club manager, achieving league success with Ipswich Town. [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3724/is_199901/ai_n8827544
title =It's become a political football
publisher = The Spectator
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 1999-01-30
author = Richard Kelly
] Upon his appointment, he declared England would win the 1966 World Cup.Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/world_cup_2006/4895404.stm
title = World Cup 1966 flashback
date = 2006-07-31
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher = BBC Sport
author = Caroline Cheese
] His first match in charge resulted in a 5–2 loss at Parc des Princes against France. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=1495&pf=m&searchname=Ramsey&

title = Alf Ramsey - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] England automatically qualified for the 1966 World Cup as hosts and, after a goalless draw in the first match against Uruguay, four consecutive victories saw England through to the final against West Germany. A 4–2 victory, after extra time, handed England the Jules Rimet trophy for the first and, as of 2008, the only time. As a result of his and England's achievements, Ramsey was awarded a knighthood in 1967. The following year England finished third in the 1968 UEFA European Football Championship in Rome, but Ramsey reflected "We are world champions. Third place is not our real position." [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20021006/ai_n12668761
date = 2002-10-06
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher =Independent on Sunday
title = Sportsweek: Replay 8 June 1968
] Automatic qualification for the 1970 World Cup was secured as world champions so Ramsey led England on a pre-tournament tour of South America. The effects of altitude on the team led Ramsey to appoint the first full-time team doctor, Neil Phillips, who helped prepare the squad for the forthcoming tournament in Mexico. England were defeated in the quarter-final by West Germany; with a 2–0 lead with 25 minutes of the match remaining, Ramsey substituted Bobby Charlton and goalscorer Martin Peters,Cite web
url =http://soccernet.espn.go.com/columns/story?id=366728&root=worldcup&&cc=5739
date = 2006-05-03
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher =ESPN
title = 1970 - Bracelets and bellyaches
] but West Germany went on to win 3–2 after extra time. Ramsey was heavily criticised in the British press for the substitutions.Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990501/ai_n14233621
title = Obituary: Sir Alf Ramsey, 1922–1999 - The Life Of A Football Legend
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher = The Independent
date = 1999-05-01
] Losing out to West Germany again, this time in a two-legged qualifying quarter final in the 1972 UEFA European Football Championship, Ramsey prepared England for qualification for the 1974 World Cup. Needing a win against Poland, Ramsey's tactical use of substitutions was again called into question as the match ended in a 1–1 draw. [Cite web
url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/11/23/sfnmil123.xml
title = This was England's darkest hour
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2007-11-23
publisher = The Telegraph
author = David Miller
] England had failed to qualify for the World Cup and Ramsey was sacked the following May.

Turbulent times

Joe Mercer took control of the team on a caretaker basis for seven matches, [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=1307&pf=m&searchname=Mercer&

title = Joe Mercer - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] before the FA appointed Don Revie on a five-year contract. It was a year before Revie's England suffered a defeat but despite this, he changed his starting line-up for every game. His relationship with the FA had broken down and his team-building exercises, including carpet bowls and indoor golf, led to disconsolation in the squad. A 2–0 defeat to Holland at Wembley turned the press against him; some commentators compared the loss to the 6–3 defeat by Hungary in 1953. Convinced he was to be replaced by Bobby Robson, he announced he was to become manager of the United Arab Emirates team. Selling his story to the Daily Mail, he subsequently resigned on 11 July 1977. Revie was charged with bringing the game into disrepute and was banned by the FA in a "kangaroo court" for ten years. On appeal to the High Court, the ban was overturned but the judge ordered Revie to pay two-thirds of the costs. [Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/0,,2216845,00.html
title = The king of the damned
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2007-11-25
publisher = Observer Sport Monthly
author = James Corbett
]

Ron Greenwood was appointed, initially as a temporary replacement for Revie, but later in 1977 on a permanent basis. Bobby Moore described him as “the encyclopaedia of football”, and he guided England to UEFA Euro 1980 without a defeat during qualification.Cite web
url = http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/article729041.ece
title = Ron Greenwood
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2006-02-09
publisher= The Times
] Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=3069&pf=m&searchname=Greenwood&

title = Ron Greenwood - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] The team exited the tournament at the group qualifying stage and Greenwood turned his attention to qualification for the 1982 World Cup in Spain. Defeats in Switzerland and Romania led Greenwood to consider resignation, but a victory over Hungary convinced him to stay. A 2–1 defeat in Oslo, which led to commentator Bjørge Lillelien's famous outburst concluding with "Your boys took a hell of a beating!", meant England required at least a point in their final qualifying game against Hungary. A Paul Mariner goal secured victory and qualification for the team. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/Archive/matchstats.html?m=558
title = World Cup Q, Wembley Stadium, London, 18 November 1981
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] Wins over France, Czechoslovakia and Kuwait allowed England into the second round group but two 0–0 draws ended in England going out of the tournament, without having lost a game. Greenwood retired immediately after the World Cup and on 7 July 1982, two days after England were knocked out of the 1982 World Cup, Bobby Robson was appointed England manager, selecting former West Bromwich Albion team-mate Don Howe as his chief coach. [Cite web
url = http://www.wba.premiumtv.co.uk/page/Superstars/0,,10366~668765,00.html
title = Don Howe
publisher = West Bromwich Albion F.C.
date = 2007-05-16
accessdate = 2008-02-14
]

Robson and "The Hand of God"

Robson's tenure included 28 qualifying matches, of which only one, against Denmark in 1983, resulted in a defeat. [cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=2120&pf=m&searchname=Robson&

title = Bobby Robson - Managerial career
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher=The Football Association
] This contributed to England's failure to qualify for the 1984 European Championships,cite web
url=http://www.thefa.com/Euro2004/History/Postings/2004/05/Euro2004_History_EnglandRecord.htm
title=England's Euro record
publisher=The Football Association
accessdate=2007-06-15
] and Robson offered his resignation. It was rejected by the FA chairman, Bert Millichip, and Robson went on to lead the England team to qualify for the 1986 World Cup in Mexico. [Cite web
url = http://soccernet.espn.go.com/columns/story?id=368804&root=worldcup25&&cc=5739
title = The time is now
date = 2006-05-24
accessdate = 2007-08-13
publisher = ESPN
] England were defeated in the quarter-final by Argentina with a brace of goals from Diego Maradona; the infamous "Hand of God" goal, and the "Goal of the Century" he scored five minutes later. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/world_cup_2006/4851052.stm
title = World Cup history - Mexico 1986
date = 2006-05-04
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher = BBC Sport
] Robson's England dropped only one point in qualifying for Euro 1988 which included an 8–0 defeat of Turkey. However this was followed by failure at the tournament itself, held in West Germany, where England were knocked out in the group stage. They finished bottom of their qualifying group, succumbing to defeats against Ireland, Holland and the USSR. [cite web
url=http://www.thefa.com/euro2004/History/Postings/2003/01/36711.htm
title=1988 European Championship
publisher=The Football Association
accessdate=2008-02-14
] Robson was vilified by the British press, and after a draw in a friendly with Saudi Arabia, one newspaper demanded: "In the name of Allah, go". [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/world_cup_2002/983995.stm
title = English football's elder statesman
publisher = BBC Sport
date = 2000-08-21
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] Robson led England without conceding a goal through the six-match qualification for the 1990 World Cup.cite web
url= http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=76/preliminaries/preliminary=69/index.html
title= 1990 FIFA World Cup Italy Preliminaries
work= FIFA.com
accessdate=2008-03-09
] As in the 1986 World Cup, Robson was denied the service of his captain, Bryan Robson, who suffered an achilles tendon injury which prevented him playing in the latter stages of the tournament. [cite web
url=http://www.thefa.com/Features/EnglishDomestic/Postings/2003/10/71764.htm
title= Robbo ready for new challenge
accessdate=2008-02-14
date=2003-10-30
] England topped their qualifying group, accumulating four points from their three games. However their progress was not without controversy. England changed formation from their traditional 4-4-2 to incorporate a sweeper, with some sources suggesting this was due to player revolt after the 1–1 draw in the first match with the Republic of Ireland. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/euro_2004/england/3808127.stm
title = Sven's toughest test?
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2004-06-16
author = Tom Fordyce
publisher = BBC Sport
] Robson refutes this claim in his autobiography. [cite book
last = Robson
title = Farewell but Not Goodbye
chapter = Zeroes to heroes
pages = p132
] This was followed by victories over Belgium and Cameroon in the knock-out stages, to set up a semi-final with West Germany.cite web
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport3/worldcup2002/hi/history/newsid_1923000/1923882.stm
title=Statistics: Italy 1990
publisher = BBC Sport
accessdate=2008-02-14
date = 2002-04-12
] England lost the match on a penalty shoot-out, after the score had been level at 1–1 following extra time.Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/world_cup_2006/4851148.stm
title = World Cup history - Italy 1990
date = 2006-04-27
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher = BBC Sport
]

Controversial times

Robson had announced before the tournament that he would step down from the post after the finals and Graham Taylor was appointed, having been approached in April 1990 by the FA. [Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/england/story/0,,1807263,00.html
title = First & last: Graham Taylor
date = 2006-07-02
accessdate = 2008-02-14
publisher = The Observer
author = Oliver Price
] Failure to proceed past the qualifying round of UEFA Euro 1992 with a 2–1 defeat against Sweden led to newspaper headlines such as "Swedes 2 Turnips 1" and Taylor's nickname of "Turnip Head". [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/in_depth/2001/new_year_honours/1734761.stm
title = Taylor awarded OBE
publisher = BBC Sport
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2001-12-31
] Following defeat to Holland in the penultimate qualifying match for the 1994 World Cup, for only the third time in its history, England had failed to qualify for the World Cup. [Cite web
url = http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,1882084,00.html
title = Classic moments - How did it feel ... Holland vs England, World Cup qualifier, 13 October 1993, Rotterdam
publisher = The Observer
accessdate = 2008-02-14
date = 2006-10-01
] The qualifying campaign was recorded in a television documentary and Taylor's remark "Do I not like that" soon after entered popular culture. [Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19970601/ai_n14104223
title = Curse of the Fry-off-the-wall documentary
accessdate = 2008-03-04
date = 1997-06-01
publisher = The Independent
author = Andrew Baker
] Failure in the qualification resulted in Taylor resigning and Terry Venables took over the helm in 1994. As England were hosts for Euro 96, he did not manage the team in a competitive match for over two years. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=4762&pf=m&searchname=Venables&

title = Terry Venables - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-14
] In January 1996 he announced that he would resign after the tournament as a result of several court cases, but led England to the semi-finals where they were defeated by Germany on penalties. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/5257058.stm
title = Terry Venables profile
accessdate =2008-02-14
date = 2006-08-11
publisher = BBC Sport
author = Mandeep Sanghera
]

He was replaced by Glenn Hoddle, whose unorthodox off-the-field approach in bringing in faith healer Eileen Drewery to help the team drew significant criticism.Cite web
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990131/ai_n9656892
title = Hoddle: The trouble with Glenn
accessdate =2008-02-15
date = 1999-01-31
publisher = The Independent
author = Sophie Goodchild
] Hoddle suggested she was "more of an agony aunt" but during the 1998 World Cup, the press suggested Drewery had influenced Hoddle in squad selection. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/269695.stm
publisher = BBC News
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 1999-02-01
title = Eileen Drewery: Hod, God and the Squad
] England were knocked out of the tournament in the second round, once again on penalties, this time against Argentina. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=3221&pf=m&searchname=Hoddle&

title = Glenn Hoddle - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-15
] Hoddle's much-criticised diary portraying his version of events at the World Cup was subsequently published, drawing further criticism. However, an interview with Matt Dickinson, a reporter from "The Times", suggested that Hoddle had a "controversial belief that the disabled, and others, are being punished for sins in a former life." [Cite web
url = http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/article2312694.ece
title = Hoddle puts his faith in God and England
publisher = The Times
accessdate = 2008-03-04
date = 1999-01-30
author = Matt Dickinson
] Hoddle's comments were criticised by several notable politicians including Sports Minister Tony Banks and Prime Minister Tony Blair. [Cite web
url = http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/soccer/world/news/1999/02/01/blair_hoddle/ CNN/SI
title = World Soccer - Blair adds voice to wave of criticism engulfing Hoddle
date = 1999-02-01
accessdate = 2008-02-15
publisher = Sports Illustrated
] Hoddle stated that he was not prepared to resign and claimed his words were misinterpreted and pointed out his contributions and commitment to organisations helping the disabled. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/football/265903.stm
title = More bad karma for Hoddle
accessdate = 2008-03-12
date =1999-01-30
publisher = BBC Sport
] The Football Association terminated Hoddle's contract soon afterwards, [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/football/270194.stm
title = Hoddle sacked
accessdate = 2008-03-12
date = 1999-02-03
publisher = BBC News
] which was welcomed by representatives of disabled groups. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/270753.stm
title = 'A victory for football'
date = 1999-02-02
accessdate = 2008-03-12
publisher = BBC News
]

Howard Wilkinson was caretaker manager for a single game before the appointment of Kevin Keegan in February 1999. Initially combining the job with a role at Fulham, Keegan was made full-time coach in May.Cite web
url = http://soccernet.espn.go.com/news/story?id=498908&
title = Kevin Keegan factfile
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2008-01-16
publisher = ESPN
] He led England to qualification for the 2000 European Championship following success in a two-legged play-off against Scotland. Two 3–2 losses resulted in England leaving the tournament at the group stage. A loss to Germany in the last international match at the old Wembley Stadium in the first 2002 World Cup qualifying match led to Keegan's resignation. Keegan resigned in the Wembley toilets, an hour after the team was booed off by the England fans; he told the FA officials that tactically he felt "a little short at this level". [Cite web
url = http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/columnists/columnists.html?in_article_id=438184&in_page_id=1951
title = Keegan having fun with his own Circus
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date =2007-02-23
publisher = Daily Mail
author = Charles Sale
] [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/984938.stm
accessdate = 2008-02-19
title = The FA's frantic fortnight
date = 2000-10-22
publisher = BBC Sport
]

Howard Wilkinson again returned as caretaker for one more match, followed by Peter Taylor who presided over a friendly loss to Italy. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=2920&pf=m&searchname=Taylor&

title = Peter Taylor - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-15
]

Foreign management

The FA then took the unprecedented and widely criticised step of appointing the first non-Englishman as coach in the form of Swede Sven-Göran Eriksson. Eriksson had a good record in European domestic football, with success in Portugal and Italy, and had led clubs to win the UEFA Cup on two occasions. He led England to qualify for the 2002 World Cup with David Beckham scoring the vital equaliser against Greece, deep into injury time. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/world_cup_2002/1575190.stm
title = England reach World Cup finals
date = 2001-10-06
accessdate = 2008-02-15
publisher = BBC News
] England were knocked out by Brazil in the quarter-finals and Eriksson came under fire for his "ice-cool" appearance on the touchline failing to inspire his team,Cite web
url = http://worldcup.sportinglife.com/football/coaches/story_get.cgi?STORY_NAME=soccer/06/04/26/manual_105450.html&TEAMHD=england
title = Sven-Goran Eriksson
publisher = Sporting Life
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2006-04-26
] senior player Gareth Southgate contemptuously remarking after the tournament that "we needed Winston Churchill but we got Iain Duncan Smith".Cite web
url = http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/internationals/eriksson-must-seize-his-chance-to-show-methods-in-tactical-madness-406216.html
title = Eriksson must seize his chance to show methods in tactical madness
publisher = Independent
accessdate = 2008-02-20
date = 2006-07-01
] Eriksson led England to qualification for the 2004 European Championship but once more the team fell at the quarter-final stage, again losing on penalties, this time to Portugal. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=5555&pf=m&searchname=Eriksson&

title = Sven-Göran Eriksson - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-15
] Losing 1–0 to Northern Ireland in Belfast during the qualification for the 2006 World Cup led to fans chanting "Sack the Swede", frustrated again at the lack of obvious emotion in Eriksson while his coach, Steve McClaren was much more animated. In January 2006, the FA announced that Eriksson would stand down after the World Cup. With the team losing in the quarter-final again to Portugal and again on penalties, Eriksson duly left the post in July.

The search for Eriksson's replacement was controversial. It became clear that the FA wanted to appoint Luiz Felipe Scolari, but the approach was botched and Scolari turned down the opportunity.Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,2044139,00.html
title = Why seven-year-old Joe could outmanage McClaren
publisher = The Guardian
author = Simon Hattenstone
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 2007-03-28
] Ultimately, Eriksson was replaced by the man who had coached the side under him, Steve McClaren.

Qualification for the 2008 European Championship proved too much, England losing the final qualifier against Croatia 3–2 in November 2007, when a draw would have been enough to take England to the finals. [Cite web
url = http://www.thefa.com/england/seniorteam/archive/?i=8189&pf=m&searchname=McClaren&

title = Steve McClaren - Managerial career
publisher = The Football Association
accessdate = 2008-02-15
] The British press turned on McClaren, former Scottish international Alan Hansen stating that "... what McClaren should be held accountable for is that with a squad of this quality he failed to qualify from what seemed a reasonably straightforward group ...". [Cite web
url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/sport/2007/10/22/sfnhan122.xml
title = McClaren failed to cash in on England's riches
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2007-10-22
publisher = The Daily Telegraph
author = Alan Hansen
] McClaren was sacked the day following the defeat to Croatia, [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7100393.stm
title = McClaren sacked as England coach
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2007-11-22
publisher = BBC Sport
] and was replaced in December 2007 by Italian Fabio Capello. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7137847.stm
title = Capello named new England manager
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2007-12-14
publisher = BBC Sport
]

Media reaction

The reaction of the British media to the England national team manager reflects the changing nature of the British media generally. [Cite web
url = http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=109491&sectioncode=26
title = And now for The Lite News
date = 1998-10-06
accessdate = 2008-02-26
publisher = Times Higher Education
author = Harriet Swain
"In recent years Britain's tabloid press has gone downmarket, probing the private lives of celebrities and splashing one lurid sex scandal after another in an effort to appeal to a mass audience."
] In recent times, managers have been attacked personally, for their personal beliefs, or private lives.

Personal attacks

The press had long campaigned for changes in management style and / or replacement of the manager himself, but a was reached under the tenure of Graham Taylor, whose unsuccessful reign led to the manager being pilloried in the tabloids. Most notably, "The Sun" newspaper reacted to a damaging defeat by Sweden in the Euro 92 tournament, by the accompaniment of the headline "Swedes 2 Turnips 1" with a photographic montage of a turnip superimposed on Taylor's head. [Edworthy, p149] Taylor was thereafter often referred to in the media as "Graham Turnip" or "Turnip Taylor". [Cite web
url = http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/party-faces-rough-ride-from-former-sun-editor-mackenzie-611661.html
accessdate = 2008-02-19
title = Party faces rough ride from former 'Sun' editor MacKenzie
date = 2002-12-21
publisher = The Independent
author = Matthew Beard
] Subsequent footballing ignominies were then followed by other depictions of Taylor as a vegetable; England's first game after Euro 92 ended in a 1–0 defeat to Spain, and "The Sun" pictured Taylor as a "Spanish onion". [Edworthy, p151] When he resigned, they reverted to the turnip image, accompanying the front page headline, "That's yer allotment". [Cite web
url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/gallery/2008/jan/25/wapping?picture=332244880
title = The Sun: the Wapping years
accessdate = 2008-02-19
publisher = The Guardian
]

Issues-based

Glenn Hoddle attracted the media spotlight for two key issues unrelated to on-the-pitch affairs. In the first, his reliance upon purported faith healer Eileen Drewery was questioned. Drewery became part of the official England staff, and players were pressured to see her, [cite book |author=Robbie Fowler and David Maddock |title=Fowler: My Autobiography |d=ISBN 1-4050-5132-9 | publisher=Macmillan |year=2005 |pages=223] even though many of them were sceptical. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/worthington_cup/1822334.stm
title = Hoddle fulfils destiny
publisher = BBC Sport
date = 2002-02-19
accessdate = 2008-02-26
] However, far more opprobrium was caused by Hoddle's comments about disabled people: [Cite web
url = http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/article2312694.ece
title = Hoddle puts his faith in God and England
accessdate = 2008-02-15
publisher = The Times
date =1999-01-30
]

Public opinion, based upon the immediate media furore resulted in (according to one BBC poll) 90% of respondents believing Hoddle should not continue as English coach. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/football/269523.stm
title = You said Hoddle should go
accessdate = 2008-02-19
date = 1999-02-01
publisher = BBC Sport
] However the BBC survey showed that while many considered his comments insensitive to the disabled, others defended his right to express his religious beliefs by claiming that to sack him would constitute religious discrimination. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/271264.stm
title = World press dumbfounded
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 1999-02-03
publisher = BBC News
]

Private life

Eriksson's private life came under scrutiny with a number of well-publicised accusations of trysts with women including Ulrika Jonsson, [Cite web
url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1942166.stm
title = Sven and Ulrika keep quiet
publisher = BBC News
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2003-10-17
] and FA secretary Faria Alam, [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4718497.stm
title = Eriksson 'not quizzed' over Faria
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2005-07-26
publisher = BBC News
] despite his on-going relationship with Nancy Dell'Olio. [Cite web
url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/0,,1717305,00.html
title = In a league of her own
publisher = The Observer
accessdate = 2008-02-15
date = 2006-02-26
author = Tim Adams
] Though Eriksson maintained in press conferences that his personal life was a private matter, [Lovejoy, p348] his relationships with Jonsson in 2002 and Alam in 2004 were subject to tabloid headlines for several weeks. [Lovejoy, vii–xv & 341–353.]

Campaigns

The media, both broadsheet and tabloid, will sometimes campaign for a manager to be dismissed, appointed or retained. Campaigns for managers to be dismissed can become front page news, with eye-catching headlines including "The final ron-devouz", "In the Name of Allah Go", "Norse Manure", "Blair Gives Hoddle The Red Card" for (respectively) Ron Greenwood, Bobby Robson, Graham Taylor and Glenn Hoddle.Cite web
url = http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/news-and-comment/why-eriksson-staying-in-charge-is-englands-nightmare-scenario-554921.html
title = Why Eriksson staying in charge is England's nightmare scenario
accessdate = 2008-03-03
publisher = The Independent
date = 2004-07-30
author = Tim Rich
]

Eriksson survived several scandals whilst in office, but his tenure was eventually ended when he was one of a series of celebrities targeted by a tabloid 'sting', [Others included Lawrence Dallaglio and the Countess of Wessex] known as "The fake Sheikh". [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/4613844.stm
title = Eriksson caught in tabloid sting
accessdate = 2008-03-03
publisher = BBC Sport
date = 2006-01-15
] Eriksson's indiscretions revealed by the newspaper "... proved the final straw for the FA", although Eriksson was permitted to stay on in the role until the end of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/5112500.stm
title = Final whistle sounds for Eriksson
accessdate = 2008-03-09
publisher = BBC Sport
date = 2006-07-01
author = Matt Majendie
]

These campaigns can backfire. Former FA chief executive, Graham Kelly recalled a campaign, orchestrated by "The Sun" against Bobby Robson, that began in 1984 (six years before his resignation): The media have often campaigned for a particular person to be appointed England manager. At various times, but particularly during the tenure of Bobby Robson, the media campaigned for the appointment of Brian Clough. Robson once told FA chairman Sir Bert Millichip "I'm having a rough time and everybody wants Brian - give the job to him. If he's successful, everybody's happy. If he fails, that's the end of the clamour for Brian Clough to be England manager." Robson added, "He would have ruffled a few feathers and disturbed the corridors of power but I think he would have been a good England manager. He had good judgement, knew how to design a team and was a great motivator." [Cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/3691056.stm
title = Players lead Clough tribute
accessdate = 2008-03-03
publisher = BBC Sport
date = 2004-09-26
] Terry Venables was also the subject of a media campaign for dismissal during his time as manager but was then supported by the press to return to the role in 2000.

Most recently, Steve McClaren received media criticism and, as failure to qualify for Euro 2008 looked increasingly likely, the headlines became more visceral, with football magazine "When Saturday Comes" describing the newspaper coverage of his final month as "relentless and remorseless".cite journal |last=Staff writers |year=2008 |month=January |title=Putting The Boot In |journal=When Saturday Comes |issue=251 |pages=p8 ] Both tabloids and broadsheets published critical pieces, "The Times" headlining an editorial "Fail and McClaren has to go".

The media have also parodied this genre of campaigns for recruitment, dismissal or retention of managers. In 2000 "The Sun" launched a campaign promoting a donkey as the new England manager. [Cite web
url = http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/internationals/slow-and-painful-death-from-quick-fix-637306.html
title = Slow and painful death from quick fix
accessdate = 2008-03-03
publisher = The Independent
date = 2000-10-15
author = Stan Hey
]

tatistical summary

The following table provides a summary of the complete record of each England manager including their progress in both the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship."Key: P–games played, W–games won, D–games drawn; L–games lost, %–win percentage."

tatistical summary for British Home Championships

The following table provides a summary of results for each England manager in the British Home Championship, held annually until the 1983–84 season."Key: P–Number of complete tournaments played, [Only British Home Championships managed entirely by each manager are included.] W–Number of tournaments won, S–Number of tournaments shared, %–win percentage."

References

General

* "England: The Official F.A History", Niall Edworthy, Virgin Publishers, 1997, ISBN 1-85227-699-1.

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