- Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and
culturalconditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. A process that continues as industrialisation. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. In the later part of the 1700s there occurred a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual-labour-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textileindustries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. [Business and Economics. "Leading Issues in Economic Development", Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511589-9 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0195115899&id=CX9kBaVx4JkC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&sig=V0eO27c7koD8rrIV2EKv6-guB5s Read it] ] The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europeand North Americaduring the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. [Russell Brown, Lester. "Eco-Economy", James & James / Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-904-3 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN1853839043&id=5aCyfUsHM6kC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&sig=1dsUat9P_-9dWWVRMpPt1udT8DQ Read it] ]
The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the eighteenth century, merged into the
Second Industrial Revolutionaround 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the nineteenth century with the internal combustion engineand electrical power generation.
The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians.
Eric Hobsbawmheld that it 'broke out' in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, [Eric Hobsbawm, "The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848", Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. ISBN 0-349-10484-0] while T. S. Ashtonheld that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. [Joseph E Inikori. "Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0521010799&id=y7rhKYWhCyIC&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&sig=zOPr9UkQv258KyhCkuFM0abERnI Read it] ] Some twentieth century historians such as John Claphamand Nicholas Craftshave argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term " revolution" is not a true description of what took place. This is still a subject of debate amongst historians. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-0117(199202)2%3A45%3A1%3C24%3ARTIR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5 Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] Maxine Berg, Pat Hudson, Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 24-50 doi:10.2307/2598327] [ [http://www.julielorenzen.net/berg.html Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Accessed November 2006]
GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. [); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, IL, USA (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7). Also [http://books.google.com/books?id=X-EJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR5&lpg=PR5&dq=wickham+roe+1916&source=web&ots=kLw74jcaEj&sig=lGr6LvJeCKcceLTKOJsYAUx_ajY available online] via Google Book Search.
* Vaclav Smil; "Energy in World History." Westview Press, 1994 [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94468450 online edition]
* Szostak; Rick. "The Role of Transportation in the Industrial Revolution: A Comparison of England and France" McGill-Queens University Press, 1991 [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101607770 online edition]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook14.html Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial Revolution]
* [http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270 "The Day the World Took Off" Six part video series from the University of Cambridge tracing the question "Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when and where it did."]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/enlightenment/features_enlightenment_industry.shtml BBC History Home Page: Industrial Revolution]
* [http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/ National Museum of Science and Industry website: machines and personalities]
* [http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/IndustrialRevolutionandtheStandardofLiving.html "Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living"] by Clark Nardinelli - the debate over whether standards of living rose or fell.
* [http://www.galbithink.org/fw.htm Factory Workers in the Industrial Revolution]
* [http://www.revolutionaryplayers.org.uk/home.stm Revolutionary Players website]
* [http://www.industrial-revolution.info/ First and second industrial revolution]
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Industrial Revolution — Inˌdustrial Revoˈlution noun [singular] the period in the 18th and 19th centuries when machines were first used to produce goods on a large scale: • The Industrial Revolution created a great demand for urban housing. * * * industrial revolution… … Financial and business terms
industrial revolution — n. The changes in the methods of production as well as the resulting changes in economic and social organization accompanying the replacement of hand labor by power driven machinery. It started in England in about 1760, and spread to other… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Industrial Revolution — n. [often i r ] the change in social and economic organization resulting from the replacement of hand tools by machine and power tools and the development of large scale industrial production: applied to this development in England from about… … English World dictionary
industrial revolution — (sometimes caps.) the totality of the changes in economic and social organization that began about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power driven machines, as the power loom… … Universalium
Industrial Revolution — noun the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation (Freq. 2) • Syn: ↑technological revolution • Instance Hypernyms: ↑historic period, ↑age * * * noun the Industrial Revolution : the major social and economic changes that… … Useful english dictionary
Industrial Revolution — A period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution, beginning in Great Britain, quickly spread throughout the world. This time period saw the mechanization of agriculture and… … Investment dictionary
Industrial revolution — The Industrial Revolution took place during the mid to late nineteenth century and saw significant social, technological, and economic progress. For the fashion industry, it began with advances in the mass production of textiles due to earlier … Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry
Industrial Revolution — In.dustrial Revo lution n the Industrial Revolution the period in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and the USA when machines were invented and the first factories were established … Dictionary of contemporary English
Industrial revolution — Commerce and agriculture were the most important sectors of the Dutch economy until late in the 19th century. The unification in 1815 of the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (the Republic and Belgium) promised a good start for a… … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands
industrial revolution — noun Date: 1848 a rapid major change in an economy (as in England in the late 18th century) marked by the general introduction of power driven machinery or by an important change in the prevailing types and methods of use of such machines … New Collegiate Dictionary