- Freddie Scappaticci
Alfredo ("Freddie" or "Frederick") Scappaticci was accused in the Irish & British media on
11 May 2003, as being a high-level double agentin the Provisional Irish Republican Army(IRA), known by the codename " Stakeknife".
Scappaticci was born in 1946 and grew up in the Markets area of
Belfast, the son of Daniel Scappaticci, an Italian immigrant to the city in the 1920s. In 1962 at the age of 16 he was encouraged to sign for the soccer club Nottingham Forestalthough his father is said to have resisted the idea. He took up work as a bricklayer.
He was fined for riotous assembly in 1970 after being caught up in "
The Troubles" and one year later was interned without trial at the age of 25 as part of Operation Demetrius. Among those interned with him were figures later to become prominent in the Republican movement; Ivor Bell, Gerry Adams, and Alex Maskey. He was released from detention in 1974 and was by this time a member of the IRA. [By Scappaticci's own admission he joined the IRA in 1969, see interview with Cook Report in External Links.]
Activities within IRA
By 1980, Scappaticci is said to have been a lead member in the IRA's
Internal Security Unit(ISU) for the IRA's Northern Command. The ISU being a unit tasked with counter intelligence and the investigation of leaks within the IRA along with the exposure of moles/ informers(also known as " touts"). Via the ISU, Scappaticci was said to have played a key role in investigating suspected informers, conducting inquiries into operations suspected of being compromised, debriefing of IRA volunteers released from police and British Army questioning, and vetting of potential IRA recruits. The ISU has also been referred to as the " Nutting Squad". Various killings as a result of ISU activities have been attributed to Scappaticci.
After the original allegations broke in 2003, Scappaticci, by now living in the Riverdale area of
West Belfast, claimed that his involvement with the IRA ended in 1990 due to his wife's illness. He also denied that he had ever been linked to any facet of the British Intelligence services including the Force Research Unit.
Involvement with British Intelligence
Scappaticci's first involvement with British Intelligence is alleged to have been in 1978, two years before the
Force Research Unit(FRU) was formed in 1980. He is said to have worked as an agent for the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) Special Branch. [During the time period the relationship between British Army Intelligence and the RUC Special Branch was said to be fractious, with the RUC Special Branch keen to retain control of the prime agents in the IRA.] The role of the FRU was to centralise Army Intelligence under the Intelligence Corps.
FRUagent turned whistleblowerusing the pseudonym " Martin Ingram" has said in his 2004 book "Stakeknife" that Scappaticci eventually developed into an agent handled by British Army Intelligence via the FRU. Ingram says that Scapaticci's activities as a high grade intelligence source came to his attention in 1982 after Scappaticci was detained for a drunk driving offence. [It is still unclear what Ingram's intentions are in making public allegations against various figures in Sinn Féin and the IRA. Some Republicans have pointed out that he could be part of a British dirty tricks campaign.] In 2003, Scappaticci was alleged to have volunteered as an informer in 1978 after being assaulted in an argument with a fellow IRA member. [See Guardian report 12 May 2003available [http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,953842,00.html here] .] Ingram paints Scappaticci at this time as "the crown jewels", (the best) agent handled by the FRU. He cites a number of allegations against Scappaticci. His accusations center on various individuals who died as a result of the activities of the ISU between 1980 and 1990. Ingram also alleges that Scappaticci disclosed information to British intelligence on IRA operations during the time period, involving:
*IRA members involved in the kidnapping of wealthy Irish supermarket magnate
Ben Dunne, Jr.in 1981. Ingram alleges that Scappaticci was influential in identifying his kidnappers to the authorities.
*the attempted kidnapping of
Galen Weston, a Canadian born business tycoon in 1983. Weston kept a manor outside Dublinwhere the kidnapping was to take place.
*the kidnapping of supermarket boss
Don Tideyfrom his home in Rathfarnhamin Dublin. Ingram alleges that Scappaticci tipped off the FRU on the details of the kidnapping which eventually resulted in the killings of trainee Garda Siochana, Gary Sheehan and an Irish Armysoldier, Private Patrick Kelly.
Other than providing intelligence to the FRU, Scappaticci is alleged to have worked closely with his FRU handlers throughout the 1980s and 1990s to protect and promote his position within the IRA. The controversy that has arisen centres on the allegation by Ingram that Scappaticci's role as an informer was protected by the FRU through the deaths of those who might have been in a position to expose him as a British agent.
The IRA executed 63 people as alleged informers during its last campaign Fact|date=February 2007 Ingram, writing in "Stakeknife" alleges that the ISU and in some cases, Scappaticci himself was involved in the killings of::Paul Valente, Maurice Gilvarry, Patrick Gerard Trainor, Vincent Robinson, :Anthony Braniff, John Torbett, Seamus Morgan, James Young, Brian McNally, :John Corcoran, Kevin Coyle, Catherine Mahon, Gerard Mahon, Damien McCrory, :Frank Hegarty, Patrick Murray, David McVeigh, Charles McIlmurray, Thomas Wilson, :Eamonn Maguire, Anthony McKiernan, John McAnulty, Paddy Flood, Ruairi Finnis, :John Dignam, Gregory Burns, Aidan Starrs, Robin Hill, Gerard Holmes, James, :Gerard Kelly, John Mulhern, Michael Brown, and Caroline Moreland.
Of these killings, those of John Dignam, Gregory Burns, and Aidan Starrs are said to have taken place because Dignam was a FRU agent about to be exposed by his republican girlfriend, Margaret Perry, who was beaten to death. Ingram also alleges that the killing of Frank Hegarty took place because it was to protect a higher placed agent for British Intelligence namely,
Martin McGuinness, whom he alleges is a paid agent that remains in place.
It should be noted that the agent's real code name was not "Stakeknife" but "Steaknife", a fact acknowledged by the Ministry of Defence in London which had ultimate responsibility for overseeing his activities. The codename"Stakeknife" was coined by Ingram so as to avoid the terms of a court injunction forbidding him from publicising anything about the agent "Steaknife". It was a device that enabled him and the media to continue writing about the agent. Fact|date=February 2007
Involvement with the Cook Report
In 1993 Scappaticci approached the
ITVprogramme "The Cook Report" and agreed to an interview on his activities in the IRA and the alleged role of Martin McGuinnessin the organisation. The first interview took place on 26 August1993 at the Culloden Hotel in Cultra, County Down. This interview was, unknown to Scappaticci, recorded and eventually found its way into an edition of the programme. The interview was posted on the world wide web as the 2003 allegations against Scappaticci surfaced.
Scappaticci appears to give intimate details of the
modus operandiof the IRA's Northern Command, indicated some of his previous involvement in the organisation and alleges, amongst other things, that Martin McGuinnesswas involved in the death of Frank Hegarty- an IRA volunteer who had been killed as an informer by the IRA in 1986. It has since been alleged that Scappaticci knew the intimate details of Hegarty's killing because, as part of his duties in the ISU, he had actually been involved in the interrogation and execution over the matter of a large Libyan arms find which the Gardaí made. Ingram states that Hegarty was a FRU agent who he and other FRU members had encouraged to rise through the organisation and gain the confidence of key IRA members. His allegations indicate that, to the handlers of the FRU, it was more important to keep Stakeknife in place rather than save the life of Hegarty.
Involvement with the Stevens Report
Things deteriorated for Scappaticci when Sir John Stevens, the Metropolitan police commissioner who has been probing RUC and British Army collusion with loyalist paramilitaries in the killing of Protestant student, Brian Adam Lambert in 1987 and the killing of
solicitorPat Finucane in 1989, revealed that he knew of his existence. In April 2004, Stevens signalled that he intended to question Scappaticci as part of the third Stevens inquiry.
A report in a February 2007 edition of the Belfast News Letter reported that a cassette recording allegedly of Scappaticci talking about the number of murders he was involved in via the "Nutting Squad", as well as his work as an Army agent, had been lodged with the PSNI in 2004 and subsequently passed to the Stevens Inquiry in 2005. [Stakeknife tape emerges after News Letter probe Belfast Newsletter 5 February 2007 [http://www.belfasttoday.net/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=3425&ArticleID=2023120] ] It is unclear whether this audio is a recording made via the Cook Report investigation.
There were several inconsistencies with the various media reports alleging that Scappaticci was
Stakeknife. The Provisional IRA has personally assured Scappaticci of their belief in his denials, and has issued public statements suggesting that the announcement of the former as a "tout" was a stunt by the British government to undermine Sinn Féin and the Republican movement. [Scappaticci's Nightmare The Sunday Business Post 31 August 2007 [http://archives.tcm.ie/businesspost/2003/08/31/story204805561.asp] ]
* [http://cryptome.quintessenz.at/mirror/scappaticci.htm Audio tape recording of Scappaticci speaking to the Cook Report.]
* [http://cryptome.org/scap-talks.htm Transcript of Scappaticci speaking to the Cook Report.]
* [http://www.newspapersoc.org.uk/Documents/Ed-excellence/Scoops/andersonstown.html Rebuttal to "Stakeknife" allegations dated 19 May 2003. Anderstown News"]
* [http://archives.tcm.ie/businesspost/2003/08/31/story204805561.asp Denials of Scappaticci in the August 31, 2003 edition of the Sunday Business Post] .
* [http://cryptome.quintessenz.at/mirror/scap-clive.htm Transcript of
Ulster TelevisionUTV Insight programme where Scappaticci was interviewed about his Cook Report allegations in 1993] .
* [http://cryptome.quintessenz.at/mirror/ingram-spies.htm Article by agent "Martin Ingram" on the abandonment of
Operation Taurusand the killing of Frank Hegarty] .
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