Amelogenin


Amelogenin

Amelogenin is a low-molecular-weight protein found in developing tooth enamel, and it belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Developing enamel contains about 30% protein, and 90% of this is comprised of amelogenins. Although not completely understood, the function of amelogenins is believed to be in organizing enamel rods during tooth development. The latest research indicates that this protein regulates the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralization of enamel. In addition, amelogenins appear to aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form cementum to the root surface of teeth.

Other significant proteins in enamel are ameloblastins, enamelins, and tuftelins.

The amelogenin gene is a single copy gene, homologues of which are located on Xp22.1-Xp22.3 and Yp 11.2 [5] .cite journal |author=Nakahori Y, Takenaka O, Nakagome Y. |url= |format=|title=A human X-Y homologous region encodes "amelogenin" |journal=Genomics. |volume=9 |issue=2 |pages=264-9 |year=1991|accessdate= 2008-07-07 |pmid=2004775 |doi=] The gene for amelogenin can be used in sex determination of samples from unknown human origin through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Using primers specific for intron 1 of the gene, the gene sequence for the intron can be amplified. The X chromosome gene, AMELX, gives rise to a 106 bp amplification product (amplicon) and the Y chromosome gene, AMELY, a 112 bp amplicon.cite journal | author = Kashyap VK, Sahoo S, Sitalaximi T, Trivedi R. |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1458324&blobtype=pdf|format=PDF|title = Deletions in the Y-derived amelogenin gene fragment in the Indian population | journal = BMC Med Genet. | volume = 10 | issue = 7 | pages = 37 | year = 2006 |accessdate= 2008-07-07| pmid = 16603093 | doi = ] Hence, the AMELX contains a 6 bp deletion in the intron 1. Therefore, when the amplicons are run on an agarose gel, samples from male sources (XY) will show two bands on an agarose gel (one for the 106 bp fragment and one for the 112 bp fragment), while females (XX) will show only one band. Thus, this process allows for sex determination of unknown samples.

However, mutations in the Y-derived fragment of the gene may result in amplification failure of the Y allele, causing misidentification of the biological sample as of a female.cite journal | author = Kashyap VK, Sahoo S, Sitalaximi T, Trivedi R. |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1458324&blobtype=pdf|format=PDF|title = Deletions in the Y-derived amelogenin gene fragment in the Indian population | journal = BMC Med Genet. | volume = 10 | issue = 7 | pages = 37 | year = 2006 |accessdate= 2008-07-07| pmid = 16603093 | doi = ] The error rate is not much. In one study, amelogenin test was undertaken on 1224 individuals participating in a biomedical study and the concordance between referred sex in the database and amelogenin test was estimated. It was found that the overall concordance rate was 99.84% (1222/1224).cite journal |author=Francès F, Portolés O, González JI, Coltell O, Verdú F, Castelló A, Corella D. |url= |format=|title=Amelogenin test: From forensics to quality control in clinical and biochemical genomics. |journal=Clin Chim Acta. |volume=386 |issue=1-2 |pages=53-6|year=2007|accessdate= 2008-07-07 |pmid=17716640 |doi=] Only two individuals were reported as having a different sex using amelogenin (than their actual sex).

Indians however seem to have an unusually high rate of amelogenin deletion in Y-chromosomes. In one study, Thangaraj and colleagues studied a total of 270 male samples, of which 5 males showed a deletion of Y chromosome specificamelogenin (1.85%). The authors proposed to call them “deleted-amelogenin males” (DAMs),who but for the detection of the presence of other Y-specific markers (e.g. SRY, STR and 50f2) would have been identified as females. Considering the consequences of the result obtained only using the amelogenin marker, the authors suggested the use of additional Y chromosome markers for unambiguous gender identification.cite journal |author=Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L. |url= |format=|title=Is the amelogenin gene reliable for gender identification in forensic casework and prenatal diagnosis? |journal=Int J Legal Med |volume=116 |issue=2 |pages=121-3|year=2002|accessdate= 2008-07-07 |pmid=12056520|doi=]

Mutations in AMELX can cause amelogenesis imperfecta, a disorder of tooth enamel development.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • amelogenin — noun A protein found in the enamel of teeth …   Wiktionary

  • amelogenin — am·e·lo·gen·in (am″ə lo jenґin) any of several proteins secreted by ameloblasts and forming the organic matrix of tooth enamel …   Medical dictionary

  • Pseudoautosomale Region — Ausschnitt aus einer menschlichen Metaphase Spreitung. Eine Region in der pseudoautosomalen Region auf den kurzen Armen des X Chromosoms (links) und des Y Chromosoms (rechts oben) wurde mit Fluoreszenz in situ Hybridisierung nachgewiesen (grüne… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pseudoautosomale Regionen — Ausschnitt aus einer menschlichen Metaphase Spreitung. Eine Region in der pseudoautosomalen Region auf den kurzen Armen des X Chromosoms (links) und des Y Chromosoms (rechts oben) wurde mit Fluoreszenz in situ Hybridisierung nachgewiesen (grüne… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Amelogenina — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Amelogenina es una proteína hidrofóbica producida por los ameloblastos durante el desarrollo del esmalte dental,[1] esta pertenece a la familia de proteínas de la matriz extracelular. El esmalte desarrollado contiene …   Wikipedia Español

  • AMELX — amelogenina (amelogenesis imperfecta 1, X linked) HUGO 461 Símbolo AMELX Símbolos alt. AMG, AIH1 …   Wikipedia Español

  • AMELY — amelogenina, Y linked HUGO 462 Símbolo AMELY Símbolos alt. AMGL …   Wikipedia Español

  • AMELY — protein Name=amelogenin, Y linked caption= width= HGNCid=462 Symbol=AMELY AltSymbols=AMGL EntrezGene=266 OMIM=410000 RefSeq=NM 001143 UniProt=Q99218 PDB= ECnumber= Chromosome=Y Arm=p Band=11 LocusSupplementaryData=AMELY is short for Amelogenin Y… …   Wikipedia

  • MMP20 — Matrix metallopeptidase 20 Masse/Länge Primärstruktur 376 Aminosäuren …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • AMELX — protein Name=amelogenin (amelogenesis imperfecta 1, X linked) caption= width= HGNCid=461 Symbol=AMELX AltSymbols=AMG, AIH1 EntrezGene=265 OMIM=300391 RefSeq=NM 001142 UniProt=Q99217 PDB= ECnumber= Chromosome=X Arm=p Band=22.3… …   Wikipedia


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