Scholastic wrestling


Scholastic wrestling

Scholastic wrestling is the commonly-used name of the style of amateur wrestling practiced at the high school and middle (junior high) school level in the United States. The wrestling style is essentially collegiate wrestling, with some slight modifications. Scholastic wrestling is also practiced in various wrestling clubs among younger participants and is more well known in those instances as folkstyle wrestling.According to an Athletics Participation Survey taken by the National Federation of State High School Associations, boys' wrestling ranked eighth in terms of the number of schools sponsoring teams, with 9,445 schools participating in the 2006-07 school year. Also, 257,246 boys participated in the sport during that school year, making scholastic wrestling the sixth most popular sport among high school boys. [cite web
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink = National Federation of State High School Associations
coauthors =
title = Participation in High School Sports Increases Again; Confirms NFHS Commitment to Stronger Leadership
work =
publisher = NFHS
date = 2006-09-18
url = http://www.nfhs.org/web/2006/09/participation_in_high_school_sports_increases_again_confirms_nf.aspx
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-12
] Scholastic wrestling is currently practiced in 48 of the 50 states; only Arkansas and Mississippi do not officially sanction scholastic wrestling for high schools and middle schools. Arkansas will begin sanctioning high school wrestling starting in the 2008-09 season. [ [http://www.nwanews.com/adg/Sports/209697/ NWAnews.com :: Northwest Arkansas' News Source ] ]

History

The history of scholastic wrestling in the United States is closely tied to the development of its college counterpart. The Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association held its first tournament in 1905, which soon sparked many more wrestling tournaments for both college and university students and high school students. [ "Wrestling, Freestyle" by Michael B. Poliakoff from "Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present", Vol. 3, p. 1191, eds. David Levinson and Karen Christensen (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1996). ] College and high school wrestling grew especially after the standardization of the NCAA wrestling rules, which applied early on to both collegiate and scholastic wrestling (with high school modifications). More colleges, universities, and junior colleges began offering dual meets and tournaments, including championships and having organized wrestling seasons. There were breaks in wrestling seasons because of World War I and World War II, but in the high schools especially, state association wrestling championships sprung up in different regions throughout the 1930s and 1940s. As amateur wrestling grew after World War II, various collegiate athletic conferences also increased the number and quality of their wrestling competition, with more wrestlers making the progression of wrestling in high school, being recruited, and entering collegiate competition. Today, the various state high school associations continue to also host annual wrestling championships for individuals and for teams.

Weight Classes

Scholastic wrestling is regulated by the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). Each state high school association has adopted its wrestling rules, with each making some modifications. Every high school is expected to practice wrestling at two levels: varsity and junior varsity, although wrestling at the freshmen (ninth grade) level is becoming more widespread. The NFHS generally sets the standard for weight classes for high school-level dual meets, multiple duals, and tournaments. In most states, high school wrestlers can compete at 14 different weight classes, ranging from convert|103|lb|abbr=on to the Heavyweight division of up to 285 lb. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 19
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Other states have additional or modified weight classes such as the convert|96|lb|abbr=on weight class in states such as New York, [ cite web
last = New York State Public High School Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-2008 NYSPHSAA Handbook
work = pp. 72-73
publisher = NYSPHSAA
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.nysphsaa.org/handbook/pdf/handbook_0708.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-06-30
] the convert|98|lb|abbr=on and convert|105|lb|abbr=on weight classes in states such as Montana, [ cite web
last = Montana High School Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 Montana High School Association Handbook
work = p. 199
publisher = MHSA
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.mhsa.org/Handbook/2007-08Handbook/2007-08-Wrestling.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-15
] and the convert|180|lb|abbr=on weight class in states such as Texas. [ cite web
last = University Interscholastic League
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 Wrestling Manual
work = p. 38
publisher = UIL
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.uil.utexas.edu/athletics/manuals/wrestling/pg30_47reg_season.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-15
] Weight classes for junior varsity, freshman, and middle school teams may differ from state to state. Each state high school association that sanctions wrestling also has a defined weight-control plan that prohibits excessive weight loss and dehydration during the season. The plan would include at least a minimum seven percent body fat for males and 12 percent body fat for females. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 10
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] These weight control plans include provisions for weight assessment by the school's athletics medical staff, and certification of the lowest allowable weight class with the team's head coach and the person that performs the weight assessment. Often, this is done online through the website of the state high school association or the National Wrestling Coaches Association (NWCA). After the date of certification, a growth allowance of two pounds in each weight class may be allowed in some states. Many tournaments offer an allowance of one or two pounds, allowing wrestlers to compete in a certain class if they are within the allowance of making the weight limit for that class. All of this is done in order to protect the wrestler's health.

tructure of the Season - Dual Meets and Tournaments

The high school wrestling season customarily runs from October or November to March. Regular season competition begins in late October or early November and continues until February. Post-season competition usually continues from February to March (depending on, if individual wrestlers or teams qualify for a regional, sectional, or state championship). Normally, two different high schools would compete in what is known as a dual meet. It is possible for there also to be a multiple dual, where more than two wrestling teams compete against each other at the same event on the same day. For example, one high school wrestling team may face another wrestling team for the first dual, and then a third wrestling team for the second dual. Also, those two wrestling teams may compete against each other in a dual meet as well. High schools often compete in regional, city-, or county-wide leagues.

Dual Meets

Dual meets usually take place on evenings during the school week (Monday through Friday), or on Saturday mornings, afternoons, or evenings during the wrestling season and begin with weigh-ins, shoulder-to-shoulder, at a maximum of one hour before the meet begins. Wrestlers may wrestle up only one weight class above the weight class that they are placed in, with some exceptions. If a wrestler fails to make weight, he either has to forfeit or weigh-in at a higher class. If a wrestler is suspected by a referee or coach of having a communicable skin disease, the wrestler can either be disqualified or provide written documentation from a physician that the skin disease is not communicable. If a meet physician is on-site, his or her judgment would overrule such documentation. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 19-20
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Dual meets often feature one or two pound allowances, but in order to qualify for a league championship, wrestlers are required to weigh in without the benefit of a pound allowance (at scratch weight) a certain number of times during the dual meet season. In all cases, after weigh-ins, the referee coordinates the random draw, which determines the sequence of weight classes for the dual meet. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 9, 27
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] After the random draw, the referee will call the wrestlers from each team who have been designated as captains. One of the captains will call a disk toss. The disk will then fall to the floor and determine: 1) which team has the choice of position at the start of the second period and 2) which one of the team's members is to appear first at the scorer's table when called by the referee for each weight class. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 9-10, 27
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] The wrestler-captain who won the disk toss may choose the even or odd weight classes. That is, he may choose the weight classes, from lowest to highest, that are numbered evenly or oddly. The first weight class chosen in the random draw is odd. Thus, the rest of the weight classes are even and odd accordingly. For example, if the convert|119|lb|abbr=on weight class is chosen in the random draw, then the 119 lb, 130 lb, convert|140|lb|abbr=on, etc. weight classes would be odd, and the 125 lb, 135 lb, convert|145|lb|abbr=on, etc. weight classes would be even. This order would work in the traditional sequence until the last even weight class of 112 lb. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 31-32
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

During a dual meet, both the junior varsity and varsity squads from the two involved schools compete against each other. The format of competition is as follows:

1. The top junior varsity wrestler of each school compete against each other in an order determined by the random draw. The first weight class drawn starts the competition, with the following weight classes proceeding in order. For example, if the convert|152|lb|abbr=on weight class was drawn first, the matches would follow after that weight class up to the convert|285|lb|abbr=on match. The matches would then revert to convert|103|lb|abbr=on and proceed to convert|145|lb|abbr=on. The dual meet would then commence with each school's top junior varsity wrestler in the first weight class drawn. After that, the top junior varsity wrestlers then compete in the succeeding weight classes. Often if more than one junior varsity wrestler is at a certain weight class for each school, the coaches will hold an exhibition match which does not count towards the junior varsity team score but allows the wrestlers to gain more competitive experience. Sometimes matches are not scored for a winning team, allowing wrestlers to focus on skills and technique rather than winning. Sometimes if one school has two junior varsity wrestlers at the same weight and the other school only has one, the lone wrestler may wrestle both the other's wrestlers. It is also common for junior varsity wrestlers to compete against wrestlers one or two weight classes above or below them.

2. After a break, the varsity matches commence in the same fashion as the junior varsity matches. However, there are no exhibition matches at the varsity level. Freshmen wrestling matches could also begin during the same time, or before the junior varsity matches.

Tournaments

Often, many high schools in the United States will compete in what is known as a tournament. This allows many schools to establish their rankings, not only for individual student-wrestlers, but also for high school teams as a whole (e.g. city, county, regional, sectional, and state wrestling championships). Tournaments are often sponsored by a high school or a state high school association and are held on Friday, Saturday, Sunday, or over any two days during the weekend. Admission is often charged to cover costs and make a small profit for the host. A tournament committee usually administers the event and after individual and team entries have been verified, the officials then determine the order of the matches (called "drawing") by certain brackets (e.g. brackets of eight, 16, etc.). The tournament officials when doing this drawing take into account each wrestler's win-loss record, previous tournament placements, and other factors that indicate the wrestler's ability. With that in mind, wrestlers who are noticed as having the most superior records are bracketed so that two top-ranked superior wrestlers in each weight class do not compete against each other in an early round. This is called seeding. A tournament begins with weigh-ins, shoulder-to-shoulder, starting two hours or less before competition begins. An allowance of one pound is granted for each subsequent day of the tournament, up to a maximum of two pounds. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 19-20, 49-51
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

With the drawing and weigh-ins completed, wrestlers then compete in two brackets in each of the 14 weight classes. Often, a tournament host will field a house team composed of junior varsity wrestlers from competing schools when there are open slots in the brackets. Tournaments are usually either varsity or junior varsity competitions. If there are not enough wrestlers to fill up the bracket in a weight class in the first round, a bye will be awarded to a wrestler who does not have to compete against another wrestler in his pairing. After taking account the number of byes, the first round in each weight class then begins. Most high school wrestling tournaments are in double elimination format. The last two wrestlers in the upper (championship) bracket wrestle for first place in the finals, with the loser winning second place. In other words, a wrestler cannot place higher than third if he is knocked down to the lower (consolation) bracket by losing in the championship semifinals. This is largely the result of time constraints: one-day tournaments often last into the evening. If the winner of the consolation bracket were allowed to challenge the winner of the championship bracket in the championship, the tournament could continue well past midnight before finishing.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 50-51
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

Depending on how many places are scored, the consolation rounds would then commence, beginning among all of the wrestlers who lost to the winners of a certain round. For example, in tournaments scoring eight places, consolation rounds would begin with all of the wrestlers who lost to the winners of the first round matches. After the championship semifinals, the losers in the semifinals would be cross-bracketed into the consolation semifinals. The winner of the consolation finals would then win third place, with the loser winning fourth place. In tournaments where six places are awarded, the losers of the consolation semifinals would wrestle for fifth place, with the loser winning sixth place. If eight places are awarded, the losers of the consolation quarterfinals would wrestle for seventh place, with the loser winning eighth place, and so on. After the championships finals, the awards ceremony usually takes place with plaques, medals, trophies, or other awards given to the individual and team winners with the highest placements. Precise rules for tournaments may vary from one event to the next.

Each state or geographic area features two or three "elite" tournaments every year. These events are by invitation only. Hence, the commonly-used name for them, Invitationals. Tournament sponsors (which are usually high schools, though sometimes colleges and universities) invite the best varsity wrestlers from their area to compete against each other. Many elite tournaments last two or even three days. For this reason, elite tournaments are often scheduled during the school's winter break.

Between one season and the next, postseason tournaments and preseason tournaments are often held in scholastic wrestling and also in freestyle and Greco-Roman. The most active wrestlers often take part in those to sharpen their skills and techniques. Also, clinics and camps are often held for both wrestlers and their coaches to help refresh old techniques and gain new strategies.

Layout of the Mat

The match takes place on a thick rubber mat that is shock-absorbing to ensure safety. A large outer circle at least convert|28|ft|m in diameter that designates the wrestling area is marked on the mat. The circumference line of that circle is called the boundary line. The wrestling area is surrounded by a safety mat area (or protection area) that is at least five inches in width. The mat area is designated by the use of contrasting colors or a two-inch wide line, which is out of bounds. The wrestlers are within bounds when the supporting points (the weight-bearing points of the body, such as the feet, hands, knees, buttocks, etc.) of either wrestler are inside this boundary line.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 11
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

The mat can be no thicker than four inches (102 mm) nor thinner than a mat which has the shock-absorbing qualities of at least 1-inch PVC vinyl-covered foam. Inside the outer circle is usually an inner circle about convert|10|ft|m in diameter, designated by the use of contrasting colors or a two-inch wide line. Wrestlers are encouraged to stay within this inner circle or else they risk being penalized for stalling (that is, deliberately attempting to slow down the action of the match). Each wrestler begins action at a starting line inside the inner circle that is three feet long. Two one-inch lines close the ends of the starting lines and are marked red for the wrestler from the visiting team and green for the wrestler from the home team. The two starting lines are convert|12|in|mm from outside to outside and form a rectangle in the middle of the wrestling area. This rectangle designates the starting positions for the three periods. All mats that are in sections are secured together. Additional padding may be added under the mat to protect the wrestlers. For younger age groups, one mat may be divided into halves or quarters so that multiple matches may be staged on a single mat.

Equipment

* A singlet is a one-piece wrestling garment made of spandex that should provide a tight and comfortable fit for the wrestler. It is made from nylon or lycra and prevents an opponent from using anything on the wrestler as leverage. The singlets are usually light or dark depending on whether the wrestlers are competing at home or abroad, and they are usually designed according to the school's or club's team colors. Wrestlers also have the option of wearing leggings with their singlets. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 16-17
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]
* A special pair of shoes is worn by a wrestler to increase his mobility and flexibility. Wrestling shoes are light and flexible in order to provide maximum comfort and movement. Usually made with rubber soles, they help give the wrestler's feet a better grip on the mat.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 17
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]
* Headgear, equipment worn around the ears to protect the wrestler, is mandatory in scholastic (collegiate or folkstyle) wrestling. Headgear is worn to decrease the participant's own risk for injury, as there is the potential to develop cauliflower ear.
* In addition, special equipment, such as face masks, braces, mouthguards, hair coverings, knee pads, or elbow pads may be worn by either wrestler. Anything worn that prevents normal movement or execution of holds is prohibited. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 18-19
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

The Match

A bout between two wrestlers of the same weight class is called a match. It consists of three periods totaling six minutes, [Matches in the consolation round of a tournament may consist of three periods, with the first period of one or two minutes, and the second and third periods being two minutes each. cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 31
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] with an overtime round if necessary if the score is tied at the end of regulation. High school matches are one minute shorter than college and university matches - not having collegiate wrestling's three-minute first period. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-10, WR-39
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] Additionally, college wrestling uses the concept of "time advantage" or "riding time", [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-23
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] while high school wrestling does not. Varsity matches may be longer than junior varsity and freshmen matches in some states. Any differences in the length of time are explained by the fact that junior varsity and freshmen wrestlers are presumed to be younger, less skilled, and possibly in poorer shape than varsity wrestlers, though this may not always be the case. Period lengths vary for age groups below high school and are different from state to state.

The main official at the wrestling match is the referee, who is responsible for starting and stopping the match; observing all holds; signaling points; calling penalties such as illegal holds, unnecessary roughness, fleeing the mat, or flagrant misconduct; and finally observing a full view of and determining the pin (or fall). [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 13-14
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] There can also be one assistant referee (especially at tournaments) that helps the referee with making any difficult decisions and in preventing error. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 15
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Also, a scorer with assistant scorers are there to record the points of the two individual wrestlers. Finally, a match or meet timekeeper may be present to note the match time, timeouts and work with the scorers. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 16
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

*Pre-matchEach wrestler is called by the referee, reports to the scorer's table, steps onto the mat, and may put on a green (for the home team) or red (for the visiting team) anklet about three inches wide which the referee will use to indicate scoring. The referee then asks both wrestlers to shake hands, and blows his whistle to begin the first period. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 19, 25, 31
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]
*First PeriodThe first period begins with both wrestlers in the neutral (standing) position. The neutral position has the two wrestlers facing each other on their feet with a slight crouch with their arms in from of them at or above waist level. [ "Webster's Sports Dictionary", p. 282, (Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Co. (now Merriam-Webster), 1976). ] Each wrestler starts with a foot on opposite sides of the starting rectangle. The referee then asks both wrestlers to shake hands, and then signals the start of the match by blowing his whistle. The match commences with each wrestler attempting to "takedown" his opponent. The first period in high school varsity wrestling matches is two minutes long.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 31
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] In junior varsity and freshmen matches, the first period can be two minutes, 90 seconds, or one minute long.

*Second PeriodAfter the first period ends, one wrestler will have the choice of starting position in the second period. In dual meets, this is determined by the colored disk toss that took place before the meet began. In tournaments, the referee will toss a colored disk, and the winner of that disk toss will have the choice of position. There are a variety of choices. The wrestler could choose between the neutral (standing) position, or as is most commonly chosen to begin in a place called the referee's position. This is where both wrestlers begin action at the center of the mat with one wrestler (in the defensive starting position) on the bottom with his hands spread apart in front of the forward starting line and his knees spread apart behind the rear starting line with his legs held together. The other wrestler on the top (in the offensive starting position) then kneels beside him with one arm wrapped around the bottom wrestler's waist and the other hand on the opponent's near elbow for control. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 26, 31-32
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] [ "Webster's Sports Dictionary", p. 348, (Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Co. (now Merriam-Webster), 1976). ] Most often, the wrestler with the choice chooses the top position, in order to remain on the offensive; however, since riding time is not calculated in high school wrestling, the top position does not offer as much of an advantage. If the wrestler chooses the bottom position, it would be ostensible to score points for a reversal or an escape and subsequent takedown. The wrestler could also defer his choice to the beginning of the third period. More recently, another starting position has been allowed, known as the optional start. After the offensive wrestler indicates his intention to the referee, the referee lets the defensive wrestler adjust and begin in the same manner as in the referee's position. The offensive wrestler then stands behind and places his both his hands on the opponent's back between his neck and his waist (usually in a diamond shape). When the referee starts the action by blowing the whistle, the defensive wrestler then has the opportunity to get back to his feet in a neutral (standing) position. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 26-27
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Any of the starting positions may be used to resume action during a period when the wrestlers go off the mat, depending on the referee's judgment as to whether any or which wrestler had the advantage. [ "Webster's Sports Dictionary", p. 348, (Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Co. (now Merriam-Webster), 1976). ]

The second period is two minutes long in high school varsity matches. In junior varsity and freshmen matches, the second period can be either two minutes or 90 seconds long.

*Third PeriodThe wrestler who did not choose the starting position for the second period now chooses the starting position. The third period is also two minutes long in high school varsity matches. In junior varsity and freshmen matches, the third period can be either two minutes or 90 seconds long.

*Overtime Round::*Sudden Victory PeriodIf the third period ends in a tie, a one minute (sudden victory) period is used. Both wrestlers start in the neutral (standing) position. The first wrestler to score a point wins.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 35
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] ::*Tiebreaker PeriodsIf no points are scored in the sudden victory period, two 30 second tiebreaker periods are used. Both wrestlers start in the referee's position. The wrestler who won a colored disk toss made by the referee has the choice of either top or bottom position, or he may defer the choice to the opponent. After the wrestler makes the choice, the two contestants then wrestle. Either of the two wrestlers must try to score as many points as he can. Once one 30 second period is over, the wrestler who was in the bottom position then wrestles on the top in another 30 second period. Whoever scores the most points (or is awarded a fall, default, or disqualification) wins the match.::*Ultimate Tiebreaker PeriodIf no points were scored or the score is still tied after the two 30-second tiebreaker periods, a final ultimate tiebreaker period is used. The ultimate tiebreaker period lasts for 30 seconds. Both wrestlers also start in the referee's position. The wrestler who scored the first points in regulation (except for double-stalling or simultaneous penalties) has the choice of top or bottom position, or he may defer the choice to the opponent. If no points were scored in the regulation match, the winner of a colored disk toss will have the choice of position. After the wrestler makes his choice, the two contestants then wrestle. The person in the bottom position must then escape to get the win. If the wrestler in the offensive (top) position rides the bottom wrestler the entire 30 seconds and does not let that wrestler up, he wins and is awarded one point.

*Post-match After the match is completed, regardless of the victory condition, the wrestlers will return to the center of the mat (on the convert|10|ft|m|sing=on inner circle) while the referee checks with the scorer's table. Upon the referee's return to the mat, the two wrestlers shake hands, and the referee declares the winner by raising the victor's hand. Both contestants then return to their team benches from the mat. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 33, 69
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

Match Scoring

Points are awarded mostly when a wrestler gains a certain level of control over his opponent. In general, the wrestler has to be controlling his opponent's hips with restraining power in order for the referee to determine that he has control of his opponent. This is known as the position of advantage. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 22, 26
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Scoring can be accomplished in the following ways:
* Takedown (2 points): A wrestler receives points for a takedown when from the neutral position, one wrestler gains control by bringing the other down onto the mat beyond reaction time, and the supporting point(s) of either wrestler are in bounds. This is most often accomplished by attacking the legs of the opponent, although various throws can also be used to bring a wrestler down to the mat. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 25, 29, 46
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

* Escape (1 point): A defensive wrestler who is being controlled on the bottom is awarded points for an escape when the offensive wrestler loses control beyond reaction time of the opponent while either wrestler's supporting point(s) remains on the mat in bounds. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 22, 25, 46
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

* Reversal (2 points): A defensive wrestler who is being controlled on the bottom is awarded points for a reversal when he comes from the bottom/defensive position and gains control of the opponent either on the mat or in a rear standing position. Reversal points are awarded on the edge of the wrestling area if either wrestler's supporting point(s) or the feet of the scoring wrestler remains on the mat in bounds. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 25, 27, 46
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

* Near Fall: This is similar to the points for exposure or the danger position awarded in the international styles of wrestling, but the emphasis for near falls is on control, not risk. Near fall criteria is met when: (1) the offensive wrestler holds the defensive wrestler in a high bridge or on both elbows; (2) the offensive wrestler holds any part of both his opponent's shoulders or scapulae (shoulder blades) within four inches (102 mm) of the mat; or (3) the offensive wrestler controls the defensive wrestler in such a way that one of the bottom wrestler's shoulders or scapulae, or the head, is touching the mat, and the other shoulder or scapula is held at an angle of 45 degrees or less to the mat. The referee counts the seconds off. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 22-23, 46
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Near fall points are also known as "back points." The near fall was formerly known as "predicament" in college wrestling. [ "Webster's Sports Dictionary", pp. 279-280, (Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Co. (now Merriam-Webster), 1976). ] When near fall points are given after the opponent is injured, signals an injury, or bleeds excessively, it is a consequence of what is sometimes referred to as the "scream rule".

::(2 points) - Two points are given when near fall criteria is met for two to four seconds. Two points can also be granted in cases where a pinning combination is executed legally and a near fall is imminent, but the defensive wrestler is injured, signals an injury, or bleeds excessively before the near fall criterion is met.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 23, 46
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

::(3 points) - Three points are given when near fall criteria is met for five seconds or more. After five seconds, the referee awards three points and stops counting. When a near fall criterion is met that is between two and four seconds, and the defensive wrestler is injured, indicates an injury, or bleeds excessively, three points are also awarded.

::(4 points) - Four points are given when a criterion for a near fall is met for five seconds, and the defensive wrestler later is injured, indicates an injury, bleeds excessively.

* Penalty (1 or 2 points): A point can be awarded by the referee to the opponent for various penalty situations. "Unsportsmanlike conduct" by the wrestler includes swearing, teasing the opponent, etc. "Flagrant misconduct" includes actions (physical or nonphysical) that intentionally attack the opponent, the opponent's team, or others in a severe way. Illegal holds are also penalized accordingly, and potentially dangerous holds are not penalizaed, but the match will be stopped by the referee. Also, "technical violations" such as stalling, interlocking hands, and other minor infractions are penalized. With some situations, such as stalling, a warning is given after the first occurennce, and if there is another occurrence the penalty point is given. In other situations, there is no warning and penalty points are automatically given. In general, after a certain number of occurrences where penalty points are given, the penalized wrestler is disqualified. A fuller treatment of the situations in which penalty points are awarded in high school wrestling matches is found [http://www.nfhs.org/core/contentmanager/uploads/PDFs/Wrestling/Wrestling_Penalty_chart.pdf here (also found on pages 42 and 43 of the "2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book")] .

Victory Conditions in Scholastic Wrestling

The object of the entire wrestling match is to attain victory by what is known as the pin or fall. A pin occurs when a wrestler holds any part of both his opponent's shoulders or scapulae (shoulder blades) on the mat for two seconds at the high school [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 22-23
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] and lower levels. A pin ends the match immediately, and the offensive wrestler who held the pin is declared the winner. Pins can be attained in many different ways. The most common way of getting the pin is through the various nelson holds, in particular, the half nelson. Other techniques used to get falls are "cradles", the "headlock" ("head and arm"), single or double "armbars" ("bar arms"), the "leg Turk", the "reverse body lock", the "guillotine", the "leg split" (also known as the "banana split" or "spread eagle"), the "spladle", the "figure-4 to the head", the "straight body scissors", and the "double grapevine" (also called the "Saturday night ride"). On the high school level in a dual meet (a competition in which wrestlers from two high school teams face each other), the fall would be awarded with six points for the winning team.cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 47
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

A technical fall is also possible once a deficit of 15 points is achieved. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 23
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] A technical fall is very likely when one wrestler has great control over the other and is able to score near fall points. If the wrestler in control is unable to score a pin, the match ends once an imminent pinning situation is no longer seen by the referee or when the wrestlers return to the neutral position. On the high school-level in a dual meet, if the technical fall occurred, five team points are awarded.

If no fall or technical fall occurs, a wrestler can also win simply by points. If a wrestler wins by eight or more points, but under the 15 points needed for a technical fall, the win is known as a major decision. This is worth four team points in a dual meet. Usually, if the wrestler wins by less than eight points, or wins the first point in a sudden victory period in overtime without gaining a fall, default, or a win by an opponent's disqualification, the wrestler then wins by decision,cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 46-47
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] worth three team points in a dual meet.

If for any reason, a wrestler is unable to continue competing during the match (e.g. because of injury, illness, etc.), his opponent is awarded victory by default,cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 22
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] worth six team points in a dual meet. If a wrestler is barred from competing further in a match by virtue of acquiring penalties or for flagrant misconduct, his opponent wins by disqualification, again worth six team points in a dual meet. In the case of flagrant misconduct, an additional three-team point penalty is imposed and the wrestler that committed the flagrant act is eliminated from further competition, removed from the premisis and all team points previously earned are deducted. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 42
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
This also can be cited from the Wrestling Penalty Chart available on the NFHS website and found [http://www.nfhs.org/core/contentmanager/uploads/PDFs/Wrestling/Wrestling_Penalty_chart.pdf here] .
] A wrestler also may gain a victory by forfeit,cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 24
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] meaning that the other wrestler for some reason fails to appear on the mat at the start of the match. A victory by forfeit is worth six team points in a dual meet. For a wrestler to win by forfeit however, he must appear on the mat in a wrestling uniform. The existence of the forfeit condition encourages teams to have at least one junior varsity and one varsity competitor at every weight class.

In a dual meet, when all team points are totaled, the team with the most points wins the competition. In all victory cases, the junior varsity and varsity competitions are scored separately. It is entirely possible for one participating school to win the junior varsity dual meet and one participating school to win the varsity dual meet. If there is a tie between teams, the tie is broken by one team point awarded to a team based on certain criteria. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 47-48
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] In a tournament, most of the points are scored on the team level of advancement. For example, a team winning a match in the championship bracket would be awarded 2 team advancement points; 1 advancement point would be awarded if a team won a match in the consolation bracket. The corresponding team points also apply if a wrestler from the team gained a bye and then won his next match in that bracket. 2 additional advancement points are for victories by fall, default, disqualification, and forfeit. 1½ additional advancement points are awarded for technical fall victories. 1 additional advancement point is awarded for major decisions. A team could then win a certain number of placement points if its wrestlers have placed individually in the championship and consolation brackets. Thus, whole teams are awarded placements (first, second, etc.) based on their total number of victories. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 48-49
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

Individual placement points are also awarded. For example, in a tournament scoring eight places, the winner of a quarterfinal in the championship bracket (where first and second places are awarded) would win three place points. The winner of a semifinal in the championship bracket would win nine place points. The winners of first and second place would then win four additional place points. In the consolation bracket (where third and fifth places are awarded), those wrestlers who reach the quarterfinal round will receive one place point. The winner of a semifinal match in the consolation bracket would receive four place points. The winners of third and fifth place would receive two additional place points. The winner of seventh place would receive one additional place point, and so on. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 49
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] A more detailed account of how individual and team points are awarded for tournaments is given on pages 46 to 49 of the "2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book".

Folkstyle - Age-group Level

At young ages, independent tournaments are often run in the freestyle and Greco-Roman styles. There are also tournaments where wrestlers compete in a style very similar to collegiate or high school (scholastic) wrestling.To differentiate this style from freestyle and Greco-Roman, the term folkstyle wrestling is a more commonly used phrase than the term collegiate wrestling or scholastic wrestling. In many places in the United States, there are small associations known as wrestling clubs designed to introduce young people to the sport of wrestling, many of whom are even as young as 3 to 5 years old. Often these wrestling clubs are benefitted by the experience of older wrestlers, particularly those who wrestle in middle school and high school. The rules governing youth matches largely correspond to those of the NFHS, with shorter periods (generally, depending on the age divisions, the periods typically last anywhere from one to one and a half minutes) and other modifications. [cite web
last =
first =
author = Simley Wrestling Club
coauthors =
title = Folkstyle Wrestling Rules
work =
publisher = Simley Wrestling Club: Inner Grove Heights, MN
date =
url = http://www.simleywrestling.com/youth/folkstylerules.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-12
]

There is, however, much less visible organization of wrestling in the freestyle and Greco-Roman styles for young wrestlers, especially at the high school and college age levels. Many high school and college students do compete in freestyle and Greco-Roman dual meets and tournaments however with great success, some of which are on the regional and national levels.

Similarly, the differences between collegiate (folkstyle) wrestling and the international styles are enough to create potential disadvantages to the wrestlers not growing up focusing on the international styles. However, some would argue that the real reason the United States does not typically fare as well in international wrestling competitions is because of the greater focus much of the rest of the world places on the sport. USA Wrestling and the Amateur Athletic Union currently sponsors duals, state, regional, and national competitions in folkstyle, freestyle, and Greco-Roman for elementary and middle school age students, as well as for all ages.

Notes

References

*cite web
last = Montana High School Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 Montana High School Association Handbook
work =
publisher = MHSA
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.mhsa.org/Handbook/2007-08Handbook/2007-08-Wrestling.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-15

*cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work =
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06

*cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages =
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =

*cite web
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink = National Federation of State High School Associations
coauthors =
title = Participation in High School Sports Increases Again; Confirms NFHS Commitment to Stronger Leadership
work =
publisher = NFHS
date = 2006-09-18
url = http://www.nfhs.org/core/contentmanager/uploads/2006-07_Participation_Survey.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-12

*cite web
last = New York State Public High School Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-2008 NYSPHSAA Handbook
work =
publisher = NYSPHSAA
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.nysphsaa.org/handbook/pdf/handbook_0708.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-06-30

*cite web
last = Simley Wrestling Club
first =
authorlink = Simley Wrestling Club
coauthors =
title = Folkstyle Wrestling Rules
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.simleywrestling.com/youth/folkstylerules.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-12

*cite web
last = University Interscholastic League
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 Wrestling Manual
work =
publisher = UIL
date = 2007-08-01
url = http://www.uil.utexas.edu/athletics/manuals/wrestling/pg30_47reg_season.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-15

*cite book|title=Webster's Sports Dictionary|first=|last=G. & C. Merriam Company (now Merriam-Webster)|publisher=G. & C. Merriam Company (now Merriam-Webster)|pages=|date=1976|id=ISBN 0877790671
*Citation
last = Poliakoff
first = Michael
author-link =
contribution = Wrestling, Freestyle
editor-last = Levinson
editor-first = David
editor-last = Christensen
editor-first = Karen
title = Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present
volume = 3
pages = 1189-1193
publisher = ABC-CLIO, Inc.
place = Santa Barbara, CA
year = 1996
id=ISBN0874368197

External links

* [http://www.nfhs.org/web/2006/08/wrestling.aspx National Federation of State High School Associations Wrestling]
* [http://www.nfhs.org/core/contentmanager/uploads/PDFs/Wrestling/2006-07%20Wrestling%20Rules%20signals.pdf Referee's Signals for Both High School and College Wrestling]
* [http://www.nfhs.org/core/contentmanager/uploads/wrscorertimer.pdf High School Wrestling Scorers' and Timers' Instructions]
* [http://www.nwcaonline.com National Wrestling Coaches Association]
* [http://www.nhsca.com/sports_wrestling.php National High School Coaches Association - Wrestling]
* [http://www.intermatwrestle.com InterMat Wrestling]
* [http://www.themat.com USA Wrestling]
* [http://aausports.org/sprt_Wrestling.asp Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Wrestling]
* [http://www.thewrestlingtalk.com TheWrestlingTalk]
* [http://www.wrestlingref.com WrestlingRef.com]
* [http://matref0.tripod.com/Articles/NFHS_Rules_Photos.pdf High School Wrestling Rules Photos]


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