- Lviv Rail Terminal
The Main Train Station in
Lviv, Ukraine, is one of the most notable pieces of Art Nouveauarchitecture in former Galicia. It was opened to the public in 1904, and celebrated its centennial anniversary March 26, 2004. On a monthly basis, the terminal handles over 1.2 million passengers and moves 16 thousand tons of freight.
Construction of an extensive net of railways within the Austro-Hungarian Empire allowed the city of Lemberg (its German name at the time) to retain its nodal position at the crossing of several notable trade routes. As the capital of Galicia, the city needed a new, representative and large
train stationthat would suit the city needs and replace the old neo-Gothic train station built between 1861 and 1862.
In 1888 the Polish architect and a graduate of the Lwów Technical Academy Władysław Sadłowski was selected to design a new train station. The final project, prepared in less than a year, encompassed a large, horizontally-oriented main hall, with two large train yards located in the background. The main entrance was topped with a large dome made of bolted steel and stained glass. Both wings of the symmetrical building were constituted by two pavilions, each with a smaller
The main entrance was flanked by a set of Tuscan columns and large mythological sculptures, with the one representing
Hypnosbeing the most notable. Since Sadłowski was the main representative of the William Morris' Arts and Crafts movementin Poland, his project included not only the architectural part of the future building, but also the ornaments and decorations. The project of three waiting halls (one for each class of travellers) was prepared in cooperation with other graduate of Sadłowski's " alma mater", Alfred Zachariewicz.
The first class waiting hall was modelled after English gentleman clubs and was equipped with dark, luxurious Viennese-style furniture, resembling the works of the
Wiener Werkstätte. Second class waiting room was modelled after 19th century burgher houses in Galicia, while the third class waiting hall was equipped with simple wooden pieces of furniture, modelled after the Zakopanestyle of Polish Gorals made by the artist Tadeusz Obmiński.
The ornaments featured in the tunnels leading to the platforms and in the platforms themselves were prepared by a
Kraków-based company of Józef Górecki. Made of bent steel, the balustrades and railings bore direct resemblance to the style of the Paris Métroornaments designed by Hector Guimard.
The construction started in 1899 and lasted until 1904,when the train station was opened to the public. [ [http://portal.lviv.ua/news/2004/03/25/102719.html Centennial Celebration] uk icon] It was visited by some of the most renowned architects of the epoch and influenced the later constructions of the train stations in
Prague( Josef Franta, 1909) and Vienna( Otto Wagner).
World War II, when the city was annexed by the Soviet Union, the Western Ukrainian railways were integrated into the Soviet Railway system. The Rail Terminal suffered extensive damage during the war, including a completely destroyed trainshed. There was an open debate on whether to restore the building or to dismantle the ruins and build anew. Architect G.F. Domashenko managed to bring both parties to agreement, and between 1949 and 1953 the old structure was given a contemporary Stalinist interior, whilst a full repair on the outside preserved its original view. [citeweb|url=http://www.oko.kiev.ua/Monument.jsp?monumentId=19|title=Oko.ua; Architecture and Craftsmanship of Ukraine, Lviv Station] Frequent renovations and upgrades ensured that the service and building was always up to modern standards, a tradition which Ukraine continued through the 1990s and into the 21 century, with most recent major restoration being carried out in 2003.
Lviv Suburban Rail Terminal
* [http://www.railway.lviv.ua/index.php Lviv State Railway]
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