Colle System


Colle System
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 8
7  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 7
6  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 6
5  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king  black king 5
4  black king  black king  black king  white pawn  black king  black king  black king  black king 4
3  black king  black king  white pawn  white bishop  white pawn  white knight  black king  black king 3
2  white pawn  white pawn  black king  white knight  black king  white pawn  white pawn  white pawn 2
1  white rook  black king  white bishop  white queen  white rook  black king  white king  black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White has achieved the basic Colle setup and is prepared for the thematic pawn push to e4

The Colle System is a chess opening strategy for White introduced by Belgian Edgard Colle in the 1920s. Also known as the Colle-Koltanowski system, played frequently and further developed by George Koltanowski, this variation of the Queen's Pawn Game is characterised by a systematic if modest development of White's minor pieces to support a quick pawn move to the e4 square. It is solid, but inflexible.

Ignoring Black's responses for the time being, the typical plan is as follows: 1. d4 2. e3 3. Nf3 4. Bd3 5. 0-0 6. Re1 7. c3 8. Nbd2 9. e4, with White re-arranging his move order appropriately. It is a perfectly solid scheme of development, but, inflexibly applied, it cannot offer more than equality against a vigorous Black response. It may be a good tool for avoiding book variations, for Blitz play, or for forcing opponents to think for themselves early on. These days it is considered totally innocuous,[1] and is rarely seen at Master level or above.

Contents


Colle-Zukertort System

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8 black king b8 black king c8 black king d8 black king e8 black king f8 black king g8 black king h8 black king 8
7 a7 black king b7 black king c7 black king d7 black king e7 black king f7 black king g7 black king h7 black king 7
6 a6 black king b6 black king c6 black king d6 black king e6 black king f6 black king g6 black king h6 black king 6
5 a5 black king b5 black king c5 black king d5 black king e5 black king f5 black king g5 black king h5 black king 5
4 a4 black king b4 black king c4 black king d4 white pawn e4 black king f4 black king g4 black king h4 black king 4
3 a3 black king b3 white pawn c3 black king d3 white bishop e3 white pawn f3 white knight g3 black king h3 black king 3
2 a2 white pawn b2 white bishop c2 white pawn d2 white knight e2 black king f2 white pawn g2 white pawn h2 white pawn 2
1 a1 white rook b1 black king c1 black king d1 white queen e1 black king f1 white rook g1 white king h1 black king 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Colle-Zukertort formation

One variation on the Colle is the Colle-Zukertort System (named for Johannes Zukertort) characterized by developing the dark-squared bishop on b2. The typical plan is: 1. d4 d5 2. Nf3 e6 3. e3 Nf6 4. Bd3 c5 5. b3 Nc6 6. O-O Bd6 7. Bb2 O-O In this variation White will make an attempt to free both bishops while Black will attempt to trap one or both. This system has been seen at Grandmaster level.

Strategic plans

The strategic plan behind the Colle System is to aim for a kingside attack. The black king's knight will be either exchanged off on e4, or driven away by the advance e4-e5. This removes a guard from the h7 square, often enabling a classic bishop sacrifice on h7 as the start of a mating attack. Some authors even call this sacrifice "Colle's sacrifice".

Games

A famous Colle system win featuring a slightly unusual Bxh7 sacrifice is Colle-O'Hanlon, 1930.[2] Analysts have squabbled over this sacrifice's theoretical soundness for many years.

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.e3 c5 4.c3 e6 5.Bd3 Bd6 6.Nbd2 Nbd7 7.O-O O-O 8.Re1 Re8 9.e4 dxe4 10.Nxe4 Nxe4 11.Bxe4 cxd4 12.Bxh7+ Kxh7 13.Ng5+ Kg6 14.h4 Rh8 15.Rxe6+ Nf6 16.h5+ Kh6 17.Rxd6 Qa5 18.Nxf7+ Kh7 19.Ng5+ Kg8 20.Qb3+ 1–0 (Black resigns)

Black has a variety of approaches to counter the Colle System. One of the most dynamic is to aim for a Queen's Indian style set-up. White's pawn push to e4 slashes at empty space, while Black's pieces are poised to undermine White's centre and attack the queenside. The technique is well illustrated in the 1929 game between Colle and José Capablanca:[3]

1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 b6 3.e3 Bb7 4.Nbd2 e6 5.Bd3 c5 6.O-O Nc6 7.c3 Be7 8.e4 cxd4 9.Nxd4 O-O 10.Qe2 Ne5 11.Bc2 Qc8 12.f4 Ba6 13.Qd1 Nc6 14.Rf3 g6 15.N2b3 Nxd4 16.Nxd4 Bb7 17.Qe2 Bc5 18.Rh3 Qc6 19.e5 Nd5 20.Qf2 Bxd4 21.cxd4 Rac8 22.Bd1 f6 23.Qh4 Rf7 24.Bf3 Qc4 25.Be3 Nxe3 26.Bxb7 Nf5 27.Qe1 Rc7 28.Be4 Qxd4+ 29.Kh1 fxe5 30.Bxf5 exf5 31.fxe5 Re7 32.Re3 Qxb2 33.e6 dxe6 34.Rxe6 Kf7 0–1 (White resigns)

Notes

  1. ^ John Nunn, Graham Burgess, John Emms, and Joe Gallagher. Nunn's Chess Openings. Everyman Publishers, London, 1999.
  2. ^ Colle vs. O'Hanlon
  3. ^ Colle vs. Capablanca

References

  • Palliser, Richard (2008). Starting out: d-pawn attacks – The Colle-Zukertort, Barry and 150 Attacks. Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1-85744-578-7. 
  • Rudel, David (2009). Bxh7+. Thinkers Press. ISBN 1-888710-37-3. 
  • Rudel, David (2009). Zuke 'Em: The Colle-Zukertort Revolutionized. Thinkers Press. ISBN 1-888710-39-X. 

External Links

Further reading


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