Isle Royale National Park


Isle Royale National Park

Infobox protected area
name = Isle Royale National Park
iucn_category = Ib



caption =
locator_x = 175
locator_y = 27
location = Keweenaw County, Michigan, USA
nearest_city = Thunder Bay, Ontario
lat_degrees = 48
lat_minutes = 6
lat_seconds = 0
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 88
long_minutes = 33
long_seconds = 0
long_direction = W
area = convert|571790|acre|km2|0
established = April 3, 1940
visitation_num = 15,973
visitation_year = 2007
governing_body = National Park Service

Isle Royale National Park is a U.S. National Park in the state of Michigan. Isle Royale, the largest island in Lake Superior, is over 45 miles (72 km) in length and 9 miles (14 km) wide at its widest point. [cite web | title=Isle Royale National Park | work=National Park Service | url=http://www.nps.gov/isro/index.htm | accessmonthday=October 13 | accessyear=2005] The park is made of Isle Royale itself and multiple smaller islands, along with any submerged lands within 4.5 miles (7.24 km) of the surrounding islands ( [http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode16/usc_sec_16_00000408---g000-.html 16USC408g] ). Isle Royale National Park was established on April 3, 1940, was designated as a Wilderness Area in 1976, and was made an International Biosphere Reserve in 1980. It is a relatively small national park at 894 square miles (2,314 km²), with only 209 square miles (542 km²) above water. At the U.S.-Canada border, it will meet the borders of the future Canadian Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area.

Human history

The island was once the site of a fishing industry, native copper mining and a resort community. Because numerous small islands surround Isle Royale, ships were once guided through the area by lighthouses at Passage Island, Rock Harbor, Rock of Ages, and Isle Royale Lighthouse on Menagerie Island.

Natural history

Ecology

Isle Royale National Park is known for its wolf and moose populations which are studied by scientists investigating predator-prey relationships in a closed environment. There are usually around 25 wolves and 1000 moose on the island, but the numbers change greatly year to year. In rare years with very hard winters, animals can travel over the frozen lake from the Canadian mainland. To protect the wolves from canine diseases, dogs are not allowed in any part of the park, including the adjacent waters. In the 2006-2007 winter, 385 moose were counted, as well as 21 wolves, in three packs. In spring 2008, 23 wolves and approximately 650 moose were counted [ Lydersen, Kari. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/20/AR2008072001591.html?hpid=moreheadlines "Warming Alters Predator-Prey Balance."] Washington Post, 21 July 2008]

Geology

Isle Royale greenstone (chlorastrolite, a form of pumpellyite) is found here, as well as on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It is the official Michigan state gemstone.

Recreation

The Greenstone Ridge is a high ridge in the center of the island and carries the longest trail in the park, the Greenstone Ridge trail, which runs 40 miles (60 km) from one end of the island to the other. This is generally done as a 4 or 5 day hike. A boat shuttle can carry hikers back to their starting port. In total there are 165 miles (265 km) of hiking trails. There are also canoe/kayak routes, many involving portages, along coastal bays and inland lakes.

ervices

The park has two developed areas: Windigo, at the southwest end of the island (docking site for the ferries from Minnesota), with a campstore, showers, campsites, and a boat dock; and Rock Harbor on the south side of the northeast end (docking site for the ferries from Michigan), with a campstore, showers, restaurant, lodge, campsites, and a boat dock.

Sleeping accommodations at the park are limited to the lodge at Rock Harbor and 36 designated wilderness campgrounds. Some campgrounds are accessible only by private boat; others in the interior are accessible only by trail or by canoe/kayak on the island lakes. The campsites vary in capacity but typically include a few three-sided wood shelters (the fourth wall is screened) with floors and roofs, and several individual sites suitable for pitching a small tent. Some tent sites with space for groups of up to 10 are available, and are used for overflow if all the individual sites are filled. The only amenities at the campgrounds are pit toilets, picnic tables, and fire-rings at specific areas. Campfires are not permitted at most campgrounds; gas or alcohol camp stoves are recommended. Drinking and cooking water must be drawn from local water sources (Lake Superior and inland lakes) and filtered, treated, or boiled to avoid parasites. Hunting is not permitted, but fishing is, and edible berries (blueberries, thimbleberries) may be picked from the trail.

oil

Bedrock on Isle Royale is basalt or sandstone and conglomerates on the 1100 million year old Midcontinent Rift. Most of the island is covered with a thin layer of glacial material. A number of small native copper mines were active in the 1800s but mining was never really prosperous. Recent analyses by the USGS of both unmineralized basalt and copper-mineralized rock show that a small amount of naturally-occurring mercury is associated with mineralization.

Access

The park is accessible by floatplane and by ferry during the summer months from Grand Portage, Minnesota, and from Houghton and Copper Harbor in Michigan. Private boats travel to the island mainly from Thunder Bay, Ontario, the closest city to the park.

Isle Royale is not popular with day-trippers because of the scheduling constraints of transportation to and from the park. The ferries that make this voyage have a relatively long transit time, and thus spend only short periods on the island. Some ferries may delay—and in some situations cancel—trips during heavy weather.

The "Ranger III" is a 165-foot (50 m) ship operated by the National Park Service, said to be the largest piece of equipment in the National Park system. It carries 125 passengers, canoes and kayaks -- even small powerboats -- and operates out of Houghton, Michigan. This is a six-hour voyage from the park, and the ship overnights at the island before returning the next day, making two round trips each week, June to mid-September. The "Isle Royale Queen" out of Copper Harbor, Michigan, and the "Wenonah", out of Grand Portage, Minnesota, operate round-trips daily in peak season, less frequently in early summer and autumn. The "Voyageur II", also out of Grand Portage, crosses up to three times a week, overnighting at Rock Harbor and providing transportation between popular lakeside campgrounds. The "Voyageur" and boat taxi services ferry hikers to points along the island, allowing a one-way hike back to Rock Harbor or Windigo.

For the 2008 season, the Ranger III will carry visitors to/from Windigo on several occasions. This new schedule will allow visitors to park in Houghton, MI while traversing the entire length of the island. Visitors may land at Rock Harbor and depart from Windigo several days later or vice versa. Formerly, visitors would have paid an additional fare to ride the "Voyageur II" in one direction to do a cross-island hike.

Because of the difficulty of travel and the hazards of wilderness survival during the winter months, it is the only major National Park Service park to close entirely for the season. Because of the relative difficulty reaching the park and its seasonal closing, fewer than 20,000 people a year visit Isle Royale - fewer than the number of people who visit the most popular national parks in a single day.

List of islands

*Amygdaloid Island - has a ranger station
*Barnum Island
*Beaver Island - has a campground
*Belle Isle - a small island just off the north shore of Isle Royale at the head of Belle Harbor. It is the site of a primitive campground and is visited every second day during the peak season by the island-circling ferry.
*Caribou Island - has a campground
*Grace Island - has a campground
*Johns Island
*Long Island
*Menagerie Island - has a lighthouse
*Mott Island - summer park headquarters
*Passage Island - has a lighthouse and short trail
*Raspberry Island - has a nature trail
*Rock of Ages - has a lighthouse
*Ryan Island - the largest island in the largest lake on the largest island in the largest freshwater lake in the world
*Tookers Island - has a campground
*Washington Island
*Wright Island

References

External links

* Official site: [http://www.nps.gov/isro/ Isle Royale National Park]
* [http://www.isle.royale.national-park.com/info.htm Isle Royale National Park info page]
*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Isle Royale National Park — Isle Royale Nationalpark Isle Royale Nationalpark …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Isle Royale National Park — Sp Karãliškosios Salõs nacionãlinis párkas Ap Isle Royale National Park L JAV (Mičigano v ja) …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Isle Royale National Park — Parc national d Isle Royale Isle Royale Catégorie II de la CMAP (Parc national) [1] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Isle royale National Park — Parc national d Isle Royale Isle Royale Catégorie II de la CMAP (Parc national) [1] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Isle Royale National Park — Island national park located in northwestern Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan, U.S. Established in 1931, it has an area of 571,790 acres (231,575 hectares) and includes Isle Royale, the largest island in Lake Superior, measuring 45 mi (72 km) …   Universalium

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Isle Royale National Park — This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Isle Royale National Park. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Isle Royale National Park,… …   Wikipedia

  • Belle Isle (Isle Royale National Park) — Vorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Bild fehltVorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Fläche fehltVorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Höhe fehlt Belle Isle (Isle Royale National Park) Gewässer Geographische Lage …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Isle-Royale-Nationalpark — Isle Royale Nationalpark …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • National Park Service — Arrowhead Agency overview Formed August 25, 1916 Jurisdiction …   Wikipedia

  • Isle Royale —   [ aɪl rɔɪəl], die größte Insel im Oberen See, gehört zum Bundesstaat Michigan, USA, 72 km lang, bis 14 km breit, 544 km2; bildet mit über 200 kleinen Inseln den Isle Royale National Park (2 314 km2; eingerichtet 1931). Die dicht bewaldeten… …   Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.