Bombing of Chongqing

Bombing of Chongqing

The bombing of Chongqing (Traditional Chinese: 重慶大轟炸, Simplified Chinese: 重庆大轰炸, Japanese: 重慶爆撃, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943) was part of an Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service terror bombing operation on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters.

A conservative estimate places the number of bombing runs at more than 5,000, with more than 11,500 bombs dropped, mainly incendiary bombs. The targets were usually residential areas, business areas, schools, hospitals (non-military targets). These terror bombings were probably aimed at cowing the Chinese government, or as part of the planned Sichuan invasion.

The raids

In character with the Japanese approach to air warfare, the bombing of Chongqing was focused almost entirely on the civilian population, thus it can be seen as an early example of terror bombing. In the first two days of the campaign, the raids of May 1939 killed more than five thousand Chinese civilians.cite book|title=Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan|author=Herbert Bix|year=2001, p.364]

Two months later, after tens of thousands of deaths, in retaliation for firebombing, the United States embargoed the export of airplane parts to Japan, thus imposing its first economic sanction against Japan. cite book|title=Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan|author=Herbert Bix|year=2001, p.364]

On 5 June 1941, the Japanese flew more than 20 sorties, bombing the city for 3 hours. About four thousand residents, who hid in a tunnel, were asphyxiated. cite book|author=Don Mosner|title=Burma campaign"|publisher=Time-Life|year=1978, pp.11, 8]

The majority of the air raids conducted against Chongqing were made with squadrons of Mitsubishi G3Ms, known as "Nells",Mitsubishi Ki-1-Is,Fiat BR.20s Cicogna ("Ruths"),Mitsubishi Ki-21s "Sallys" and Kawasaki Ki-48s "Lilys" although towards the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Mitsubishi G4Ms ("Bettys"), Nakajima Ki-49s Donryu ("Helens"), Yokosuka P1Ys Ginga ("Frances") and Mitsubishi Ki-67s Hiryu ("Peggys") were also employed. Due to the unpreparedness of the Chinese Air Force at the beginning of the war, much of the air raids were totally unopposed. Thus the campaign was one made against a defenceless target, and remains, like other Japanese atrocities during the war such as the Nanjing Massacre, highly contentious to the present day.

Total bomb tonnage and raids

Three thousand tons of bombs were launched on the city between 1939 and 1942.

A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing.


External links

* [ Memorial site]
* [,9171,764009,00.htm] l

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chongqing — For other uses, see Chongqing (disambiguation). Chongqing 重庆   Municipality   Municipality of Chongqing • 重庆市 …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Tokyo — Part of Pacific War Tokyo burns under B 29 firebomb assault, May 26, 1945 …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Dresden in World War II — Dresden after the bombing raid The Bombing of Dresden was a military bombing by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) and as part of the Allied forces between 13 February and 15 Febr …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Hamburg in World War II — History of Hamburg This article is part of a series Hamburg culture   …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Cologne in World War II — Cologne in 1945 The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids[1] by the Allies during World War II, including 31 times[ …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Belgrade in World War II — This article is about the bombings of Belgrade during WWII. For NATO bombings in 1999, see 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The city of Belgrade was bombed during two campaigns in World War II, the first undertaken by the Luftwaffe in 1941, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Darwin — For 2 May 1943 air raid on Darwin, see Raid on Darwin (2 May 1943). For other air raids on Darwin, see Air raids on Australia, 1942–43. Bombing of Darwin Part of World War II, Pacific War …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Nordhausen in World War II — Nordhausen WWII bombings Part of Strategic bombing campaign in Europe Location Nordhausen (district), Nazi Germany …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Minsk in World War II — Minsk after the bombing. The Minsk Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Minsk (population was 270,000) in the USSR during the Second World War. During 24 June 1941 three waves of bombers, of 47 aircraft each, bombed Minsk. The anti aircraft …   Wikipedia

  • Bombing of Mannheim in World War II — The German city of Mannheim in the state of Baden Württemberg saw bombing during World War II from December 1940 until the end of the war. Mannheim saw over 150 air raids. As part of Operation Abigail Rachel the first deliberate terror raid on… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.