1994 civil war in Yemen


1994 civil war in Yemen

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=1994 civil war in Yemen
partof=


caption=Map of Yemen
date=May-July 1994
place=Southern Yemen
result=Yemenite government victory, Occupation of South Yemen
combatant1=
combatant2=
commander1=Ali Abdullah Saleh
commander2=Ali Salim al-Bayd
strength1=
strength2=
casualties1=
casualties2=
notes=
The May-July 1994 civil war in Yemen was waged between the Yemeni government in Sana'a and Yemen Socialist Party (YSP) supporters, fighting for the seccession of the southern part of Yemen . The war resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces and the flight into exile of most of the YSP leaders and other southern secessionists. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45275/Yemen Yemen :: Civil war and political unrest - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]

Background

The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on 22 May 1990 with Ali Abdullah Saleh becoming President and Ali Salim al-Beidh Vice President. For the first time in centuries, much of Greater Yemen was politically united. A 30-month transitional period for completing the unification of the two political and economic systems was set. A presidential council was jointly elected by the 26-member YAR advisory council and the 17-member PDRY presidium. The presidential council appointed a Prime Minister, who formed a Cabinet. There was also a 301-seat provisional unified parliament, consisting of 159 members from the north, 111 members from the south, and 31 independent members appointed by the chairman of the council.

A unity constitution was agreed upon in May 1990 and ratified by the populace in May 1991. It affirmed Yemen's commitment to free elections, a multiparty political system, the right to own private property, equality under the law, and respect of basic human rights. Parliamentary elections were held on 27 April 1993. International groups assisted in the organization of the elections and observed actual balloting. The resulting Parliament included 143 GPC, 69 YSP, 63 Islaah (Yemeni grouping for reform, a party composed of various tribal and religious groups), six Baathis, three Nasserists, two Al Haq, and 15 independents. The head of Islaah, Paramount Hashid Sheik Abdallah Bin Husayn Al-Ahmar, is the speaker of Parliament.

Islaah was invited into the ruling coalition, and the presidential council was altered to include one Islaah member. Conflicts within the coalition resulted in the self-imposed exile of Vice President Ali Salim Al-Bidh to Aden beginning in August 1993 and a deterioration in the general security situation as political rivals settled scores and tribal elements took advantage of the unsettled situation.

Events

Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister continued to serve as the ROY Prime Minister, but his government was ineffective due to political infighting. Continuous negotiations between northern and southern leaders resulted in the signing of the document of pledge and accord in Amman, Jordan on 20 February 1994. Despite this, clashes intensified until civil war broke out in early May 1994.

Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighboring states and received billions of dollars of equipment and financial assistance, mostly from Saudi Arabia, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.

Southern leaders declared secession and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994, but the DRY was not recognized by the international community. Ali Nasir Muhammad supporters greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45275/Yemen Yemen :: Civil war and political unrest - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] Other resistance quickly collapsed and thousands of southern leaders and military went into exile. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45275/Yemen Yemen :: Civil war and political unrest - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]

Aftermath

The government prepared legal cases against four southern leaders--Ali Salim al-Baidh, Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, Abd Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri, and Salih Munassar Al-Siyali -- for misappropriation of official funds. Others on the list of 16 were told informally they could return to take advantage of the amnesty, but most remained outside Yemen. Although many of Ali Nasir Muhammad's followers were appointed to senior governmental positions (including Vice President, Chief of Staff, and Governor of Aden), Ali Nasir Muhammad himself remained abroad in Syria.

In the aftermath of the civil war, YSP leaders within Yemen reorganized the party and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, the party remained disheartened and without its former influence. Islaah held a party convention in September 1994. The GPC did the same in June 1995.

In 1994, amendments to the unity constitution eliminated the presidential council. President Ali Abdallah Salih was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. The constitution provides that henceforth the President will be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates selected by the legislature. Yemen held its first direct presidential elections in September 1999, electing President Ali Abdallah Salih to a 5-year term in what were generally considered free and fair elections. Yemen held its second multiparty parliamentary elections in April 1997.Now there is a huge movement in the south for the right to return before 1994 or the return of the South Yemeni county independence separated from North Yemen. This movement started by the former South Yemeni army members and separated to most of the southerns calling for the return of the independent south.

References


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