Antiope (mythology)


Antiope (mythology)

Antiope (IPA| [æn ˈtaɪ o pe] ) is a figure from Greek mythology. She was the only Amazon known to have married. Daughter of Ares and sister to Melanippe and Hippolyte and possibly Orithya, queens of the Amazons, [Virginia Brown's translation of Giovanni Boccaccio’s "Famous Women", p. 41; Harvard University Press 2001; ISBN 0-674-01130-9] she was the wife of Theseus. There are various accounts of the manner in which Theseus became possessed of her, and of her subsequent fortunes.

In one version, during Heracles' ninth labor, which was to obtain the Girdle of Hippolyte when he captured the Amazons' capital of Themiscyra, his companion Theseus, king of Athens, abducted Antiope and brought her to his home (Diodorus iv. 16). They were eventually married and she gave birth to a son, Hippolytus (Plutarch, "Theseus"), who was named after Antiope's sister. Soon after, the Amazons attacked Athens in an attempt to rescue Antiope and to take back Hippolyte's girdle; however, the Amazons failed. [Brown, p. 42]

During this conflict, known as the Attic War, Antiope was said to have fought on the side of the Amazons. She was seriously wounded and could no longer defend herself from Theseus and his retainers (which included Heracles). Watching these events take place, the Amazon Molpadia killed the queen with an arrow (some say spear), saving her from violation by the Athenian king.

In an alternate story, Theseus had planned to marry Phaedra. Antiope was furious about this and decided to attack them on their wedding day. She promised to kill every person in attendance; however, she was slain instead, fulfilling an oracle's prophecy to that effect, though it took Theseus, Heracles, and an army to kill her. (Hyginus, "Fab". 241).

And in yet another alternate version, Hippolyte marries Theseus and the subsequent attack on Athens does not occur.

Notes

See also

*Hercules and the Amazon Women
*Penthesilea
*Hippolyta
*Otrera

References

*Watson, John Selby "Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius: Literally Translated", pp 21-22, 547; Published 1853 H. G. Bohn, original in the New York Public Library
*Williams, Henry Smith "The Historians' History of the World: A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise", v.2, p. 440-441; Published 1904 The Outlook Company, New York Public Library
*Justinus "Epitoma Historiarum philippicarum Pompei Trogi" II.4.17-30
*Orosius "Historiae adversus paganos" I.15.7-9


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