Indonesian Declaration of Independence


Indonesian Declaration of Independence

The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10.00 a.m. sharp on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the five year diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they recognised Indonesian independence is in 1945, not 1949. [http://indonesia.nl/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=27&Itemid=46]

The Declaration Event

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Soekarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi's house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the "Museum of the Declaration of Independence", JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta). The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik. cite news |first=|last=|title=Former governor Ali Sadikin, freedom fighter SK Trimurti die |url=http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/05/21/former-governor-ali-sadikin-freedom-fighter-sk-trimurti-die.html |work= Jakarta Post |publisher= |date=2008-05-21 |accessdate=2008-06-07] cite news |first=Dian|last=Yuliastuti|title=Freedom Fighter SK Trimurti Dies
url=http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/nasional/2008/05/21/brk,20080521-123376,uk.html |work= Tempo Interactive |publisher= |date=2008-05-21 |accessdate=2008-06-07
] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia's independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia's independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing. The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation's diversity. The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be dysfunctional Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue. Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All party involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers 'in the name of the nation of Indonesia'

Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno's house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation's independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

The Aftermath

The event also triggered several insurgencies and atrocities in some local areas such as Westerling's Celebes Massacre in 1946, East Sumatra Social Revolution in 1946, and Laskar Hitam. They were carried out by both Dutch-loyalists and anti Dutch-loyalists fighting against each other, as well as by other local militias that simply took advantage of the seemingly uncertain situation following the proclamation.

Text of the Declaration

The draft

In Indonesian:


PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan (menyatakan) kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang (yang) mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan (kekuasaan), d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara (cara) saksama dan dalam tempoh jang (yang) sesingkat-singkatnja (sesingkat-singkatnya).

Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-0'5

Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia

Draft amendments:

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:
* "tempoh": changed to "tempo", both meaning "time period".
* 17-8-45: changed to "hari" 17, "boelan" 8, "tahoen" 05" ("day 17, month 8, year 05" of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number "05" is the short form for 2605.
* "Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia" (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to "Atas nama bangsa Indonesia" ("in the name of the nation of Indonesia").

Final text

In Indonesian:


PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05

Atas nama bangsa Indonesia

<>Soekarno - Hatta

English translation:


PROCLAMATION

We, the Indonesian people, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.

Matters concerning the transfer of power, etc., will be carried out in a conscientious manner and as speedily as possible.

Jakarta, 17th day of 8th month, year 05 (note: Japanese calendar year)

In the name of the nation of Indonesia

<>Soekarno - Hatta

References

* Ricklefs, M.C., 1981, "A History of modern Indonesia" Macmillan Southeast Asian Reprint, p198
* Lembaga Soekarno-Hatta, 1984 "Sejarah Lahirnya Undang Undang Dasar 1945 dan Pancasila", Inti Idayu Press, Jakarta, p19
* Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,1991:52-53.

Further reading

*cite book|author=Anderson, Ben|title=Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-1946|year=1972|publisher=Cornell University Press|location=Ithaca, N.Y.|id=ISBN 0-8014-0687-0

External links

* [http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1153/1126024158_e94ce6be16.jpg?v=0 Draft declaration] fact|date=August 2007


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Declaration of independence — Unilateral declaration of independence redirects here. For the specific Rhodesian document, see Unilateral Declaration of Independence. This article is about the type of document. For the first document to be generally called such, see United… …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesian language — Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia Spoken in Indonesia East Timor (as a working language ) Region Southeast Asia Native speakers 23 million  (2000) …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesian National Party — This article is about the historical political parties of this name. For the modern political party, see Indonesian National Party Marhaenism. The Indonesian National Party (Indonesian: Partai Nasional Indonesia, PNI) is the same used by several… …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesian National Revolution — A defiant Bung Tomo, one of the most revered revolutionary leaders. This famous photo represents for many who took part, both Dutch and Indonesian, the very soul of the revolutionary struggle …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesian occupation of East Timor — East Timor is located at the end of the Indonesian archipelago, 400 miles (640km) northwest of Darwin, Australia. History of East Timor …   Wikipedia

  • Chinese Indonesian — ethnic group group=Chinese Indonesian 印度尼西亞華人 印度尼西亚华人 Yìndùníxīyà Huárén poptime=1,739,000 (2000 census)cite book last= first= publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies title=Indonesia s Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing… …   Wikipedia

  • Banknotes of the Indonesian rupiah — The first paper money used in the Indonesian archipelago was that of the United East Indies Company, credit letters of the rijksdaalder dating between 1783 and 1811. Netherlands Indian gulden government credit paper followed in 1815, and from… …   Wikipedia

  • Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference — This article is part of the History of Indonesia series See also: Timeline of Indonesian History Prehistory Early kingdoms …   Wikipedia

  • Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence — The Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence, also referred to as the Southeast Asian Youth Conference, was an international youth and students event held in Calcutta, India on February 19–23,… …   Wikipedia

  • List of sovereign states by date of formation — Below is a list of sovereign states by formation dates, sorted by continent. This list includes only the 194 sovereign states currently in existence; it does not include former sovereign states. For proposed states or various indigenous nations… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.