- Antarctic Technology Offshore Lagoon Laboratory
The Antarctic Technology Offshore Lagoon Laboratory (ATOLL University) was a floating oceanographic laboratory for "in situ" observation experiments and for field testing new instruments and equipment for polar expeditions. The ATOLL hull was the largest
fiberglassstructure ever built at that time. It was in operation from 1982to 1995.
tructure and infrastructure
The ATOLL was composed of three curved fiberglass elements, each 25 m long and having a draught of only 38 cm. For towing, the elements could be assembled in a long S-shape; in operation, the elements would form a horseshoe shape surrounding 150 m² water surface. The lab provided ample space for twelve researchers: it had some 75 m³ of laboratory space and about three times as much for storage and supply facilities, including an air-conditioned computer room, a dormitory and a glasshouse with fireplace on deck.
The laboratory was installed and operated in the
Baltic Sea(and the Bay of Kielin particular) at the initiative and under the direction of Uwe Kils, at the Institute of Oceanography ("Institut für Meereskunde") of the University of Kiel. It was funded by the German Ministry of Science and the bioscience prize of the Volkswagen Foundationand 8 million dollars of donations from [http://uwekils.de/kinderuni FOTO KILS] ; the fiberglass hulls themselves were bought from Waki Zöllner's "Atoll" companyref|Zoellner.
The onboard computer was a
NeXTand the first versions of the [http://www.ecoscope.com/krill "Virtual microscope"] of Antarctic krillfor interactive dives into their morphology and behavior were developed here, finding later mention in Science magazine. The lab was connected to the Internetvia a radio link, and the first images of ocean critters on the internet came from this NeXT. The first ever "in situ" videos of Atlantic herringfeeding on copepods were recorded from this lab (see "Videos" below).
An underwater observation and experimentation room allowed direct observation and manipulation through large portholes.
The technical equipment included an ultra-high-resolution scanning
Sonarref|kils91for locating schools of juvenile herring, for guiding a ROV, controlled via a cyberhelmet and glove, and for determining positions, distances, and speeds. Probes measured the water salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Special instruments could measure plankton-, particle-, and bubble-concentrations and their size distributionsref|Kils81. Imaging equipment included low-light still and high speed video cameras using shuttered Laser-sheet or infrared LEDilluminationref|Strickler92. An endoscope-system for non-invasive optical measurements called ecoSCOPE, which could also be mounted on an ROV, was developed and used to record the microscale dynamics and behavior of the highly evasive herring.
Scientific investigations aboard the ATOLL concentrated on one of the most important food chain transitions: the linkages between the early life stages of herring ("Clupea harengus") and their principal prey, the
copepods. A major hypotheses of fisheries ecologists is that the microdistribution of prey, the microturbulence of the ocean, or the retention conditions are normally not suited to allow strong year classes of fish to develop. In most years more than 99% of herring larvae do not surviveinote|reference, please!. Occasionally however, physical and biotic conditions are favorable, larval survival is high, and large year-classes result. Research work at the ATOLL investigated the effects of small-scale dynamics on fish feeding and predator avoidance and their correlation to year-class strength.
Questions worked on by students during courses and their thesis: What are the effects of the natural light gradient on predator-prey interactions? How can the predator best see the prey without being seen?ref|Thetmeyer How does the focussing of small waves oscillating light regime influence camouflage and attack strategy? What are the influences of the different frequencies of microturbulences? How do such effects change at the moment when herring larvae join into schools? What role does the phenomenon of aggregation play? Does ocean physics create or alter organism-aggregations? Can the dynamics of aggregations effect ocean physics at the microscales?ref|kils93 Are there effects of the surface waves? What are the distribution and dynamics of microbubbles caused by turbulences and gas-oversaturations? How can the organisms orient in respect to micro-gradients of the ocean physics? How do they survive in the direct vicinity of undulating anoxia and hypoxiaref|fischer? Why are
eelpouts, sticklebacks and herrings so extremely successful in the Baltic while codis not?ref|kils92 What are the effects and functions of schooling for feeding and microscale-orientation? What is the behavior of fish in netcages and how much food is lost from the cagesref|kils91.
All this can best be investigated "in situ". The ATOLL mainly served as a test bed for the development and field testing of equipment and developing ROVsref|kils95 that were to be used later in Antarctic expeditions, e.g. for "in situ" imaging of transparent organisms of krill size under the ice.
* (50% timelag, looping, each image shifted to compensate the rolling microturbulences from the waves) of feeding juvenile herring (38 mm) on
copepods - the fish approach from below and catch each copepod individually. In the middle of the image a copepod escapes successfully to the left. Scanned with the ecoSCOPE.
*Kils, U.: " [http://www.usglobec.org/newsletter/news8/news8.atoll.html The ATOLL Laboratory and other Instruments Developed at Kiel] "; U.S. GLOBEC NEWS Technology Forum Number 8: 6-9; 1995. Also available as a
# [http://www.arminwitt.de/zoellnere.htm Waki Zöllner's floating artificial islands] .
# Kils, U.: " [http://www.scar.org/publications/list/ "Swimming Behavior, Swimming Performance, and Energy Balance of Antarctic Krill" Euphausia superba] ", College Station, Texas; [http://www.ecoscope.com/biomass3.htm 1 - 122] ; 1981.
# Schulze P., Strickler, R., Bergstroem, B., Berman, M., Donaghay, P,, Gallagher, S., Haney, J., Hargraeves, B., Kils, U., Paffenhoefer, G., Richman, S., Vanderploeg, H., Welsch, W., Wethey, D. & Yen, J.: "Video based instruments for in situ studies of zooplankton abundance, distribution and behavior.", "Arch. Hydro. Beih." 36: 1-21; 1992.
# Kils, U., Ruohonen, K., Makinen, T.: Daily feed intake estimates for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Wahlbaum) evaluated with SONAR and X-ray techniques at commercial net cage farms. Coun Meet Int Coun Explor Sea 1991/F3:1-8; 1991
# Thetmeyer, H., Kils, U.: To see and not to be seen: the visibility of predator and prey with respect to feeding behaviour. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 126: 1-8; 1995
# Kils, U., Marschall, P.: Der Krill, wie er schwimmt und frisst - neue Einsichten mit neuen Methoden (The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba - feeding and swimming performances - new insights with new methods) In Hempel, I., Hempel, G., Biologie der Polarmeere - Erlebnisse und Ergebnisse (Biology of the Polar Oceans) Fischer Jena - Stuttgart - New York, [http://www.ecoscope.com/polarbe2.htm 201-207] ;1995 (and images p 209-210)
# Fischer, P., Rademacher, K., Kils U.: "In situ" investigations on the respiration and behaviour of the eelpout Zoarces viviparus under short term hypoxia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 88: 181-184; 1992
# Kils, U.: Formation of Micropatches by Zooplankton-Driven Microturbulences. Bull Mar Sci 53(1) 160-169; 1993
# Fischer, P., Kils, U.: "In situ" Investigations on Respiration and Behaviour of Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and the Eelpout Zoaraes viviparus During Low Oxygen Stress ICES C.M.1990/F:23; 1990 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
* [http://www.ecoscope.com//atoll11.htm ATOLL laboratory]
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