- Geothermal power in Turkey
Turkey currently has the 5th highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal energy in the world. Turkey's capacity as of 2005 is 1495 MWt with a utilization of 24,839.9 TJ/year or 6900.5 GWh/year at a capacity factor of 0.53. Most of this is in the form of direct-use heating however goethermal electricity is currently produced at a plant in Kizildere producing 120,000 tonnes of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice. The Kizildere plant has 20 MW capacity and runs at an average capacity of 12-15 MW annually.Lund, J. W., Freeston, D. H., & Boyd, T. L. (2005). Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review. Geothermics, 34, 691-727. http://dx.doi.org/ doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2005.09.003]
The direct-use heating has been mostly district heating serving 103,000 residences (827MWt and 7712.7 TJ/year). There is also individual space heating (74MWt and 816.8 TJ/year); 800,000 m2 of heated greenhouses (192MWt and 3633 TJ/year); and 215 balneological facilities, 54 spas, bathing and swimming pools (402MWt and 12,677.4 TJ/year).
As of 2005 170 future geothermal prospects had been identified with 95% in the low-to medium enthalpy range suitable for direct-use applications (Simsek et al., 2005).Simsek, S., Mertoglu, O., Bakir, N., Akkus, I., Aydogdu, O., 2005. Geothermal energy utilization, development and projections--country update report (2000–2004) of Turkey. In: Proceedings of the World Geothermal Conference 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005.] The proven potential is 3293 MWt and the total geothermal potential is approximately 31,500 MWt indicating that 30% of Turkish residences could be heated geothermally. By 2010 Turkey plans to produce 500MWe geothermal electricity and 3500MWt through space heating.
* [http://www.jeotermaldernegi.org.tr/ Turkish Geothermal Association]
* [http://www.mta.gov.tr/english/daireler/enerji/jeokorucr.asp Geothermal projects drilled in 2003]
* [http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=34921 Aegean region is becoming Turkey's geothermal center]
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