Pannonian Rusyns

Pannonian Rusyns

Ethnic group
group=Rusyns in Pannonia
poptime=20,000 approx.
15,626 (2002 census)
2,337 (2001 census)
note: some Rusyns in Pannonia also declare themselves as Ukrainians
langs=Rusyn|rels=Predominantly Eastern Rite Catholic (Uniate).
related=Rusyns, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Poles and other Slavic peoples

Rusyns in Pannonia, or simply Rusyns or Ruthenians (Rusyn: Руснаци or Русини, Serbian and Croatian: "Rusini" (or Русини in Serbian Cyrillic)), is the name of a Slavic minority in Serbia and Croatia. They are officially considered a separate nationality in Serbia and Croatia, but are also considered to be a part of the northern Rusyns (Ruthenians) who live mostly in Ukraine, but also in Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, and Hungary.

The main difference between Rusyns in Pannonia and northern Rusyns is language: the language of the Rusyns in Pannonia has more Western Slavic features than the language of the northern Rusyns.


The Rusyns in Pannonia mostly live in the autonomous province of Vojvodina in Serbia. There are 15,626 declared ethnic Rusyns in Vojvodina (2002 census) and their language is one of the six official languages of Vojvodina province. The village of Ruski Krstur in the Kula municipality is the cultural centre of the Pannonian Rusyns. Other villages with Rusyn majority are Kucura in the Vrbas municipality and Bikić Do in the Šid municipality. Some Pannonian Rusyns also live in Slavonia (Croatia), forming majority in village of Petrovci in Bogdanovci municipality, Vukovar-Srijem county.


Rusyns in Pannonia emigrated from the area which is today known as eastern Slovakia and western Ukraine in the 18th century, along with Germans, Hungarians, and Slovaks.

During the time of the Austrian Empire, an intensive colonization of certain areas in today's Banat and Bačka was carried out after the last Ottoman wars which left the treasury of the Empire almost empty. Population of Banat and Bačka was decimated in those wars. The Austrian Empire had intention to re-populate this rich, arable land, and increase the state revenue by collecting taxes.

In the census of Kula municipality from 1746 appear three Rusyns for the first time on that territory: Janko and Petro Homa and Janko Makovicki.

The official date of Rusyn settlement in Vojvodina is January 17, 1751 when Bačka administrator Franc Josip de Redl signed the contract with Mihajlo Munkači from village Červenovo in county of Bereg, to bring 200 Rusyn families of Greek-Catholic rite from the upper Hungarian districts known as the "Upper-Land" or "Горнїца" to [ Kerestur.]

Kerestur was Serbian settlement mentioned 1741 as ruined and abandoned village because its settlers moved to Čelarevo.

The same administrator signed another contract on May15, 1763 with Petro Kiš from Kerestur, to bring in Kocur 150 Rusyn families of Greek-Catholic rite from the same areas in the "Upper-Land".

As population grew and arable land given to settlers by contract was limited, many families from Kerestur and Kocur decided to migrate into town of Novi Sad (1766 and 1767).

Later, Rusyns settled in Šid, Vajska, and in the early XIX century in Vukovar and Ilok, today Croatia . In Petrovci (also Croatia), Rusyns started settlement in 1833, in Bačinci 1834 etc.

In whole Bač-Bodroš county (which was southern Hungary and today mostly Banat and Bačka), census from 1767 shows about 2.000 Rusyns. Census from 1991 in the same area, shows about 25.000 Rusyns. Currently, number of Panonian Rusyns declines and estimated number is about 15.000.


They speak the Pannonian Rusyn language (as opposed to the northern Rusyn), which is often considered only a microlanguage or dialect. Those considering the Pannonian Rusyns distinct from the northern Rusyns argue that their language is a Western Slavic language, as opposed to the northern Rusyn language, which is an Eastern Slavic language. However, both, the language of the Pannonian Rusyns and of the western part of the northern Rusyns (in Slovakia, Poland, etc.) is a mixture of features of Western and Eastern Slavic languages.


#Рамач, Янко. Кратка история Руснацох. Нови Сад: Грекокатолїцка парохия Св.Петра и Павла, 1993
#Жирош, Мирон. Бaчвaнско-сримски Руснaци домa и у швеце (1745–1991) том 1 - 5. Нови Сад: Грекокатолїцкапарохия Св. Петра и Павла 1997 - 2003
#Лабош, Федор "История Русинох Бачки, Сриму и Славониї 1745-1918”, Нови Сад, 1978
#Ranko Bugarski, Jezici, Novi Sad, 1996.
#Stevan Konstantinović, Priče o Rusinima, Šid, 1995.
#Vladimir Kirda Bolhorves, Na debelom ledu, Beograd, 1996.

ee also

*Pannonian Rusyn language
*Ethnic groups of Vojvodina

External links

* [ Rusyns in Serbia]
* [ Rusyns in Croatia]
* [ Ruski Krstur - Руски Керестур]
* [ Ruski Krstur - Руски Керестур]
* [ Ruski Krstur - Руски Керестур]

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