- Sprint Cup Series
Sprint Cup Series Category Stock car racing Country or region United States Inaugural season 1949 Drivers 49 Teams 22 Constructors Chevrolet
Engine suppliers 4 Last Drivers' champion Jimmie Johnson Last Teams' champion Hendrick Motorsports Last Makes' champion Chevrolet Official website NASCAR.com Current season
The NASCAR Sprint Cup Series (often shortened to Sprint Cup or the Cup Series) is the top racing series of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR). The series was originally known as the Strictly Stock Series (1949) and Grand National Series (1950–1970). While leasing its naming rights to R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was known as the Winston Cup Series (1971–2003). When a similar deal was made with Sprint Nextel Corporation, it became the NEXTEL Cup Series (2004–2007).
The drivers' champion is determined by a point system where points are given according to finishing placement and laps led. The season is divided into two segments. After the first 26 races, the 10 highest ranked drivers, plus the two drivers with the most race wins who are ranked from 11th through 20th in points, are seeded based on their total number of wins and compete in the last 10 races with the difference in points greatly minimized. This is called the Chase for the Championship.
The series holds strong roots in the Southeastern United States with half of its 36-race season in that region. The Daytona 500, its most prestigious race, had a television audience in the U.S. of about 16 million viewers in 2009. Previously, races have been held in Canada, and exhibition races were held in Japan and Australia.
Sprint Cup Series cars are unique in automobile racing. The engines are powerful enough to reach speeds over 200 mph (320 km/h), but high weight - coupled with a (relatively) simple aerodynamic package - makes for poor handling. Their bodies and chassis are strictly regulated to ensure parity, and electronics are generally spartan in nature.
Strictly Stock & Grand National
In 1949, NASCAR introduced the Strictly Stock division, after sanctioning Modified and Roadster division races in 1948. Eight races were run, on seven different dirt ovals and the Daytona Beach beach/street course.
The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race ever was held at Charlotte Speedway on June 19, 1949. The race was won by Jim Roper after Glenn Dunnaway was disqualified after the discovery of his altered rear springs. The first series champion was Red Byron. The division was renamed to "Grand National" for the 1950 season, reflecting NASCAR's intent to make its part of the sport more professional and more prestigious. It would retain this name until 1971.
The 1949 Strictly Stock season is treated in NASCAR's record books as the first season of GN/Cup history. Martinsville Speedway is the only track on the 1949 schedule that remains on the current schedule.
Rather than a fixed schedule of one race per weekend with most entrants appearing at every event, the Grand National schedule included over sixty events in some years, often with two or three on the same weekend, and occasionally with two races on the same day in different states.
In the early years, most GN races were held on dirt-surfaced short oval tracks (from under a quarter-mile to over a half-mile lap length) or dirt fairgrounds ovals (usually a half-mile to a mile lap length). 198 of the first 221 Grand National races were on dirt tracks. Darlington Raceway opened in 1950 and became the first completely paved track on the circuit over one mile (1.6 km) long. In 1959, when Daytona International Speedway was opened, the schedule still had more races on dirt racetracks than paved ones. Through the 1960s, as superspeedways were built and old dirt tracks were paved, the number of dirt races was reduced.
The last NASCAR race on a dirt track was held on September 30, 1970 at the half-mile State Fairgrounds Speedway in Raleigh, North Carolina. It was won by Richard Petty in a Plymouth that had been sold by Petty Enterprises to Don Robertson and rented back for the race.
From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series. It was sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston. In 1971, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act banned television advertising of cigarettes. Tobacco companies began to sponsor sporting events both as a way to spend their excess advertising dollars and as a way to circumvent the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act's ban on television advertising. In its later years, RJR's sponsorship became more controversial in the wake of U.S. legislation that sharply restricted avenues for tobacco advertising.
The changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The season was made shorter, and the point system was modified several times in the next four years. Races on dirt tracks were removed from the schedule, as were oval track races shorter than 250 miles (402 kilometers). NASCAR's founder, Bill France, Sr., turned over control of NASCAR to his oldest son, Bill France Jr. In August 1974, France Jr. asked series publicist Bob Latford to design a point system with equal points awarded for all races regardless of length or prize money. This system ensured that the top drivers had to run all the races to become series champion. It was used without change from 1975 until the Chase for the Championship was instituted for 2004.
ABC Sports aired partial or full live telecasts of Grand National races from Talladega, North Wilkesboro, Darlington, Charlotte, and Nashville in 1970. These events were less exciting than many GN races, and ABC abandoned live coverage. Races were instead broadcast, delayed and edited, on the ABC sports variety show Wide World of Sports.
In 1979, the Daytona 500 became the first stock car race that was nationally televised from flag to flag on CBS. The leaders going into the last lap, Cale Yarborough and Donnie Allison, wrecked on the backstretch while dicing for the lead, allowing Richard Petty to pass them both and win the race. Immediately, Yarborough, Allison, and Allison's brother Bobby were engaged in a fistfight on national television. This underlined the drama and emotion of the sport and increased its broadcast marketability. Luckily for NASCAR, the race coincided with a major snowstorm along the United States' eastern seaboard, successfully introducing much of the captive audience to the sport.
Starting in 1981, an awards banquet has been held the first Friday evening in December, at New York City's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, initially in the Starlight Roof. In 1985, the ceremony was moved to the much larger Grand Ballroom, where it would be held until 2001. In 2001, the banquet portion was dropped in favor of a simpler awards ceremony. In 2002, the awards ceremony was moved to the Hammerstein Ballroom at the Manhattan Center. In 2003, the banquet format returned, as the ceremony moved back to the Waldorf's Grand Ballroom.
In 1985 Winston introduced a new award program called the Winston Million. From 1985 to 1997, any driver who won three of the four most prestigious races in the series was given $1 million. This prize was only won twice during its existence. Bill Elliott won in 1985 and Jeff Gordon won in 1997. It was replaced with a similar program, the Winston No Bull 5, in 1998 which awarded $1 million to any driver that won a prestigious race after finishing in the top five of the most previous prestigious race.
The series underwent a large boom in popularity in the 1990s. In 1994, the NASCAR held the first Brickyard 400 at Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Between 1997 and 1998, the winner's prize money for the Daytona 500 tripled. This coincided with a decline of popularity in American Championship Car Racing.
In 1999, NASCAR agreed to a new broadcasting agreement with Fox Broadcasting, Turner Broadcasting, and NBC. This particular television contract, signed for eight years for Fox and six years for NBC and Turner, was valued at $2.4 billion.
NEXTEL & Sprint Cup
In 2003, RJR dropped its sponsorship of the top series, and NASCAR obtained a sponsorship from NEXTEL, a telecommunications company. In 2004, the series became known as the NEXTEL Cup Series.
The 2006 merger between Sprint and NEXTEL resulted in the cup series being renamed the Sprint Cup, beginning with the 2008 season.
By 2009, the popularity boom of the 1990s had ended. Television ratings over the past ten years had been more or less stagnant. Some criticisms by long-time fans include a feeling that the series had lost its traditional appeal by abandoning venues in the southeastern United States in favor of new markets. They also voiced discontent over Toyota's presence in the series. NASCAR CEO Brian France has become a prime target for criticism among fans.
Chase for the Championship
Along with the change in title sponsorship for the series, the 2004 season also introduced a new system for determining the series champion influenced by the system used by the USAR Hooters Pro Cup Series.
Originally known as the Chase for the Nextel Cup (or simply "The Chase", and later changed to Sprint branding), the ten highest scoring drivers and teams (plus ties) in the first 26 races of the season became eligible to win the championship by competing in a playoff held within the final 10 races. The Chase participants had their points increased to a level mathematically unattainable by anyone outside this field (roughly 1800 points ahead of the first driver outside of the Chase). From the inaugural Chase in 2004 to the 2010 Chase, the point totals of each driver who made the Chase were reset to 5,000 points, plus 10 additional points for each race victory during the first 26 races. Points would still be awarded as usual during the affected races. Whoever leads in points after the 36th race would be declared the champion.
As part of a major change in the points system that took effect in 2011, the qualifying criteria and the points reset were changed as well. Now, the 10 drivers with the most drivers' points automatically qualify for the Chase. They are joined by two "wild card" qualifiers, specifically the two drivers with the most race wins who are ranked between 11th and 20th in drivers' points. Their base point totals are now reset to 2,000 points, a level expected to be roughly 1,000 points higher than that of the first driver outside the Chase. (Under the new point system, a race winner can earn a maximum of 48 points, as opposed to 195 in the pre-2011 system.) The 10 automatic qualifiers receive a bonus of 3 points for each race win during the regular season, while the two wild cards receive no such bonus. As in the past, the race layouts for the remaining 10 races are the same, with no changes to the scoring system.
To encourage continued competition among all drivers, a number of awards are given to drivers finishing outside the Chase. The highest finishing non-Chase driver (since 2007, 13th place at the end of the season) is awarded a bonus (approximately $1 million) and a position on stage at the postseason awards banquet. The awards banquet now focuses solely on the Chase with all of the series' sponsored and contingency awards were moved to a luncheon at Cipriani the day before the banquet.
This playoff system was implemented primarily to make the points race more competitive late in the season, and indirectly, to increase television ratings during the NFL season, which starts around the same time as the Chase begins. Furthermore, the Chase also forces teams to perform at their best during all three stages of the season—the first half of the regular season, the second half of the regular season, and the Chase.
Previously, the champion may have been decided before the last race (or even several races before the end of the season) because it was mathematically impossible for any other driver to gain enough points to overtake the leader. Although this is still mathematically possible going into the last two events, it has yet to occur.
Chase For the Championship Winners
Year Driver (# of Cups won) Owner(s) Number Make Starts (Total Races) Wins Top 10s Poles Points (margin) 2004 Kurt Busch Jack Roush 97 Ford Taurus 36 (36) 3 21 1 6506 (8) 2005 Tony Stewart (2) Joe Gibbs 20 Chevrolet Monte Carlo 36 (36) 5 25 3 6533 (35) 2006 Jimmie Johnson Jeff Gordon, Rick Hendrick 48 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS 36 (36) 5 24 1 6475 (56) 2007 Jimmie Johnson (2) 48 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS/Chevrolet Impala SS 36 (36) 10 24 4 6723 (77) 2008 Jimmie Johnson (3) 48 Chevrolet Impala SS 36 (36) 7 22 6 6684 (69) 2009 Jimmie Johnson (4) 48 Chevrolet Impala SS 36 (36) 7 22 6 6492 (141) 2010 Jimmie Johnson (5) 48 Chevrolet Impala 36 (36) 6 23 2 6622 (39)
Sprint Cup owner's Championship
The Sprint Cup Owner's Championship operates in the same manner as the Driver's Championship, but awarding points to each individual car (even if an owner enters more than one car, they are viewed and scored as separate entities). The points awarded are identical to the drivers' list, with one minor exception—drivers who are not eligible to earn points toward the drivers' title can still earn points toward the owner's championship. An example of this occurred in the first race under the current point system, the 2011 Daytona 500. Under another rule newly implemented for the 2011 season, drivers are only allowed to earn drivers' points in one of NASCAR's three national series. Trevor Bayne, who won the race, did not earn any drivers' points because he chose to run for the Nationwide Series championship. However, he earned 47 owner's points for Wood Brothers Racing (43 base points and 3 bonus points for the win, and 1 bonus point for leading a lap).
Before a major change to the points system implemented in 2011, there was a slightly different addition to the system of allocating owner's points — in the event of more than 43 cars attempting to qualify for a race, owner's points were awarded to each car in the following manner: the fastest non-qualifier (in essence, 44th position) received 31 points, three less than the 43rd position car. If there was more than one non-qualifying car, owners' points continued to be assigned in the manner described, decreasing by three for each position. Under the post-2010 point system, only those cars that actually start in a given race will earn owner's points.
There is a separate "chase for the championship" for the owners' points.
A 2005 rule change in NASCAR's three national series affects how the owner's points are used. The top 35 (Sprint Cup), or top 30 (other series) full-time teams in owner points are awarded exemptions for the next race, guaranteeing them a position in the next race. These points can decide who is in and out the next race, and have become crucial since the exemption rule was changed to its current format. At the end of each season, the top 35 in owner's points are also locked into the first five races of the next season.
In some circumstances, a team's owners' points will differ from the corresponding driver's points. In 2005, after owner Jack Roush fired Kurt Busch during the next-to-last race weekend of the season, the #97 team finished in eighth place in owner's points, while Busch ended up tenth in driver's points. In 2002, when Sterling Marlin was injured, the #40 team finished eighth in owner's points, while Marlin was 18th in driver's points, because of substitute drivers Jamie McMurray and Mike Bliss, who kept earning owner points for the #40. Another example was in the aforementioned 2011 Daytona 500.
A Manufacturer's Championship is awarded each year, although the Driver's Championship is considered more prestigious. In the past, manufacturer's championships were very prestigious because of the number of manufacturers involved, and the manufacturer's championship was a major marketing tool. In the Nationwide Series, the championship is known as the Bill France Performance Cup.
Points are scored in a 1960–1990 Formula One system, with the winner's manufacturer scoring nine points, six for the next manufacturer, four for the manufacturer third among makes, three for the fourth, two for the fifth, and one point for the sixth positioned manufacturer. This means that if Chevrolets place first through tenth in a given race and a Ford is 11th and a Dodge 12th, Chevrolet earns 9 points, Ford 6 and Dodge 4.
Sprint Cup cars
Sprint Cup Series cars (often called "Cup cars") adhere to a front engine rear-wheel-drive design. A roll cage serves as a space frame chassis and is covered by a 24-gauge sheet metal body. They have a closed cockpit, fenders, a rear spoiler, and an aerodynamic splitter. Fielding a car for one season usually costs $10–20 million. Each team may build their own cars and engines (per NASCAR's specifications) or purchase cars and engines from other teams.
The cars are powered by carbureted V8 engines, with cast iron blocks, and a pushrod valvetrain actuating two-valves per cylinder, and limited to 358 cubic inches (about 5.8 liters) displacement. However, modern technology has allowed power outputs near 850 horsepower (630 kW) in unrestricted form while retaining the conventional basic engine design. In fact, before NASCAR instituted the gear rule, Cup engines were capable of operating in excess of 10,000 rpm. A Sprint Cup Engine with the maximum bore of 4.185 inches (106.3 millimeters), and stroke of 3.25 inches (82.55 millimeters) at 9,000 rpm has a mean piston speed of 24.75 m/s (roughly that of a Formula One engine). NASCAR currently plans to change from carburetion to fuel injection for the 2012 season.
The front suspension is a double wishbone design, while the rear suspension is a two-link live axle design utilizing trailing arms. Brake rotors must be made of magnetic cast iron or steel and may not exceed 12.72 inches (32.3 centimeters) in diameter. The only aerodynamic components on the vehicles are the front splitter, spoiler, NACA ducts in the windows only, and side skirts. The use of rear diffusers, vortex generators, canards, wheel well vents, hood vents, and undertrays is strictly prohibited. While the cars may reach speeds of about 200 mph (321.8 km/h) on certain tracks, Russ Wicks drove a stock car built to NASCAR's specifications 244.9 mph (394.1 km/h) during a speed record attempt at the Bonneville Salt Flats in October 2007.
The electronic systems on Sprint Cup Cars remains rudimentary. Since the engines are carbureted and the ignition system is mechanically timed there is no need for an electronic control unit. This prevents teams from using traction control, anti-lock brakes and telemetry. During free test sessions, NASCAR's regulations involving electronics are relaxed allowing teams to utilize technologies such as telemetry, oxygen sensors, pitot tubes, throttle position sensors, accelerometers, and many other devices to measure vehicle performance.
Evolution of Sprint Cup cars
When the series was formed under the name, strictly stock, the cars were just that, production vehicles with no modifications allowed. The term stock car implied that the vehicles racing were unmodified street cars. Drivers would race with factory installed bench seats and AM radios still in the cars. To prevent broken glass from getting on the race track, windows would be rolled down, external lights would be removed or taped over, and wing mirrors would be removed. The 1957 fuel injected 150 model Chevrolet (known as "the black widow") was the first car to be outlawed by NASCAR. The 1957 Chevrolet won the most races, with 59 wins, more than any car to ever race in the cup series. Before the mid-1960s, cars were typically based on full sized cars such as the Chevrolet Bel Air and Ford Galaxie. Beginning in 1966, mid-size cars including the Ford Fairlane and Plymouth Belvedere were adopted and soon became the norm.
NASCAR once enforced a homologation rule that at various times stated that at least 500 cars had to be produced, or as many as one car for every make's dealership in the nation had to be sold to the general public to allow it to be raced. Eventually, cars were made expressly for NASCAR competition, including the Ford Torino Talladega, which had a rounded nose, and the Dodge Charger Daytona and Plymouth Superbird which had a rear wing raised above roof level and a shark shaped nose-cap which enabled speeds of over 220 mph (350 km/h). Beginning in 1970, NASCAR rewrote the rules to effectively outlaw such outlandish aerodynamic devices.
In 1971, NASCAR phased in a rule to lower the maximum engine displacement from 429 cubic inches (7.0 liters) to its present 358 cubic inches (5.8 liters). NASCAR handicapped the larger engines with a restrictor plate. The transition was not complete until 1974 and coincided with American manufacturers ending factory support of racing and the 1973 oil crisis.
The downsizing of American cars in the late 1970s presented a challenge for NASCAR. Rules mandated a minimum wheelbase of 115 inches (2,900 mm), but after 1979, none of the models approved for competition met the standard, as mid-sized cars now typically had wheelbases between 105 and 108 inches. After retaining the older models (1977 for the GM makes, and 1979 for Ford and Dodge) through 1980, for the 1981 season the wheelbase requirement was reduced to 110 inches (2,800 mm), which the newer model cars could be stretched to meet without affecting their appearance. The Buick Regal with its swept-back "shovel" nose initially dominated competition, followed by the rounded, aerodynamic 1983 Ford Thunderbird. The Chevrolet Monte Carlo and Pontiac Grand Prix adopted bubble back windows to stay competitive. Amid its financial woes, and after dropping its rear-drive coupes, Chrysler Corporation left NASCAR entirely.
1987 marked an incredible, but then unfortunate milestone for Sprint Cup cars. The incredible happened during Winston 500 qualifying when Bill Elliott established a world stock-car record when he posted a speed of 212.809 mph (342 km/h). Then the unfortunate happened during the 22nd lap of the race, driver Bobby Allison blew an engine, which caused a flat tire in the middle of Talladega Superspeedway’s tri-oval. Allison’s car hit the catch fence and tore a hole in the fence approximately 100 feet (30 m) long. Several spectators were injured in the accident, including one woman who lost an eye. In the aftermath of the crash, NASCAR mandated the use of a restrictor plate at Talladega Superspeedway and Daytona International Speedway to reduce speeds.
By 1989, GM had switched its mid-sized models to V6 engines and front-wheel-drive, but the NASCAR racers only kept the body shape, with the old V8 rear-wheel-drive running gear, rendering obsolete the "stock" nature of the cars. When the Ford Thunderbird was retired, without Ford having any two-door intermediate bodies, the four-door Ford Taurus body was used (although NASCAR racers actually have no opening doors).
While the manufacturers and models of automobiles used in racing were named for production cars (Dodge Charger R/T, Chevrolet Impala SS, Toyota Camry, and the Ford Fusion), the similarities between Sprint Cup cars and actual production cars were limited to a small amount of shaping and painting of the nose, headlight and tail light decals, and grill areas. Until 2003, the hood, roof, and decklid were still required to be identical to their stock counterparts.
It was in this time that NASCAR engaged in the practice of mandating rule changes during the season if one particular car model became overly dominant. This often led to claims that some teams would attempt sandbagging in order to receive more favorable handicaps.
Because of the notorious manner of the Ford Taurus race car and how the manufacturer turned the car into an "offset" car (the car was notoriously asymmetrical in race trim because of its oval shape), NASCAR ended this practice to put more emphasis on parity and based new body rules in 2003, similar to short track racing, where offset cars had become a burden for race officials, resulting in the "Approved Body Configuration" design.[clarification needed]
Car of Tomorrow (2007–present)
In 2007, NASCAR introduced a radically new vehicle specification known as the "Car of Tomorrow" (CoT). Its debut was at Bristol Motor Speedway in March. Initially, the CoT was only used at 16 selected events. While NASCAR originally planned to wait until the start of the 2009 season to use the CoT in every race, they changed that date to the start of the 2008 season. Many drivers still had complaints about the CoT, but this new timeline was intended to help teams save money by giving them only one car specification to work on.
The design of this car has focused on cost control, parity, and driver safety. The car's width was increased by 4 inches (10 centimeters), the bumpers were re-designed to render bump and run tactics less effective, and the height of the car has increased by 2 inches (5 centimeters) to accommodate taller drivers and increase aerodynamic drag. The driver's seat was moved closer to the center of the car. The most noticeable changes to fans was the addition of a rear wing replacing the familiar spoiler. The wings could be adjusted between 0–16 degrees and were used with multiple configurations of end plates.
New rules for the car eliminate the asymmetrical bodies on cars which had run rampant since the 1998 Taurus release. However, almost all advantages of using one car over another have been nullified. NASCAR requires all CoTs to conform to common body templates, regardless of make and model.
The rear wing remained a controversial feature for several years. Its appearance was often criticized and it was accused of forcing cars to become airborne in high-speed spins such as the one experienced by Carl Edwards during the 2009 Aaron's 499 at Talladega Superspeedway. In 2010 NASCAR decided to replace the wing with the original spoiler. The switch began with the 2010 Goody's Fast Pain Relief 500 at Martinsville Speedway
For 2011, NASCAR altered the nose of the car once more, with the splitter being reduced in size, and the braces being replaced by a solid front valence.
A major engine change is now scheduled for 2012, with NASCAR currently planning to introduce fuel injection no later than the second race of that season. Initially, NASCAR indicated that it would transition to fuel injection midway through the 2011 season, but decided before that season to put off the change until 2012.
It has been announced that in 2013, manufacturers will be given a little more leeway for branding their Sprint Cup cars. It is expected that these changes will make the cars resemble their street counterparts more closely, such as in the Nationwide Series. 
The automobiles' suspension, brakes, and aerodynamic components are also selected to tailor the cars to different racetracks. A car that understeers is said to be "tight", or "pushing," causing the car to keep going up the track with the wheel turned all the way left, while one that oversteers is said to be "loose," or "free," causing the back end of the car to slide around which can result in the car spinning out if the driver is not careful. The adjustment of front and rear aerodynamic downforce, spring rates, track bar geometry, brake proportioning, the wedge (also known as cross-weight), changing the camber angle, and changing the air pressure in the tires can change the distribution of forces among the tires during cornering to correct for handling problems. Recently, coil bind setups have become popular among teams.
These characteristics are also affected by tire stagger (tires of different circumference at different positions on the car, the right rear having the most influence in left turns) as well as the rubber compounds used in tire construction. These settings are determined by NASCAR and Goodyear engineers and may not be adjusted by individual teams.
Changing weather conditions may also affect a car’s handling. In a long race, it is sometimes advantageous to prepare a car to handle well at the end of an event while surrendering speed at the start. Without electronic controls, the carburetor must be tuned manually for the expected air temperature and barometric pressure. Rain will force a race to be halted immediately as there is no current provision for rain tires. While rain tires were developed for the series in the late 1990s, NASCAR abandoned them as there were not enough road courses on the schedule to justify the cost making more tires to replace them as they aged. Sprint Cup cars have used these tires in practice sessions, but only the Nationwide Series has used them in race conditions. There was, however, one case of a Sprint Cup race being held in the rain. In 1956 a race at Road America was held in rain and won by Tim Flock.
- Chassis: Steel tube frame with safety roll cage, must meet NASCAR standards.
- Engine Displacement: 5.86 L (5,860 cc) (358 in³) Pushrod V8.
- Transmission: 4 Speed Manual.
- Weight: 3,200 lb (1,451 kg) (without driver, fuel); 3,400 lb (1,542 kg) (with driver, fuel).
- Power Output: 865 hp (645 kW) unrestricted; 445 hp (332 kW) with restrictor plate (2007).
- Torque: 720 N·m (530 ft·lbf).
- Fuel: E15 provided by Sunoco.
- Fuel Capacity: 17.75 US gal (67 L) most tracks.
- Fuel Delivery: Carburetion (to be changed to fuel injection in 2012)
- Compression Ratio: 12:1.
- Aspiration: Naturally aspirated.
- Carburetor size: 750–830 cubic feet per minute (354–392 L/s) 4 barrel.
- Wheelbase: 110 in (2,794 mm).
- Steering: Power, recirculating ball.
- Tires: Slick tire provided by Goodyear.
- Length: 208 in (5,283 mm).
- Height: 53.5 in (1,359 mm).
- Width: 76.5 in (1,943 mm).
- Safety equipment: HANS device, Seat belt 6-point supplied by Willans, Sabelt. Optional: 7 point Seat belt
Sprint Cup Series tracks
Sprint Cup races are not conducted on identical tracks. The 2011 season has 21 oval tracks and 2 road courses on the schedule. Oval tracks vary in length from 0.526 miles (847 m) (Martinsville Speedway) to 2.66 miles (4.28 km) (Talladega Superspeedway). While some tracks are true ovals (Bristol Motor Speedway, Dover International Speedway), many are tri-ovals (Kentucky Speedway, Kansas Speedway, Daytona International Speedway). Other configurations are quad-oval (Charlotte Motor Speedway, Atlanta Motor Speedway, Texas Motor Speedway), D-oval (California Speedway, Michigan International Speedway, Richmond International Raceway), oval with unequal ends (Darlington Raceway), triangular (Pocono Raceway), and almost-rectangular (Indianapolis Motor Speedway). Courses also differ in degree of banking on the curves, with differences in degree of banking and course length contributing to different top speeds on various courses. New Hampshire Motor Speedway and Phoenix International Raceway are considered "flat" tracks as they have only 7 and 11 (respectively) degrees of banking in the turns. Infineon Raceway and Watkins Glen International are complex shaped road courses. While the series has a reputation for being oval centric, there has always been at least one road course on the schedule since its inception.
Race speeds vary widely based on the track. The fastest track is Talladega Superspeedway where the record race average speed is 188 mph (303 km/h) with the record qualifying lap of 212.809 mph (342.483 km/h) set by Bill Elliott in 1987. The slowest tracks are Infineon Raceway, a road course, with a record race average speed of only 81 mph (130 km/h) and qualifying lap of 99 mph (159 km/h); and Martinsville Speedway, a very short, nearly flat "paper clip" shaped oval, with a record race average speed of 82 mph (132 km/h) and a qualifying lap of only 98 mph (156 km/h). The average speed is figured out based upon the winner's race time throughout the entire race, from the waving of the green flag to the waving of the checkered flag, including laps spent under caution, divided by the distance of the race. Time elapsed during red flag periods is not added into the calculation of the average speed.
Cup Series records
- Most wins for one year model car: 59 cup wins (years 1957–1960), 1957 Chevrolet.
- Most championships: 7-(tied) Richard Petty and Dale Earnhardt
- Most Chase For The Cup Championships: Jimmie Johnson (5)
- Most Consecutive Championships: 5, Jimmie Johnson (2006–2010)
- Youngest champion: Bill Rexford, 23 years old
- Oldest champion: Bobby Allison, 45 years old
- Fewest victories in a championship season: 1-(tied) Benny Parsons, Bill Rexford, Ned Jarrett, Matt Kenseth
- Most career wins: 200, Richard Petty
- Most wins in the modern era (1972–present): 85, Jeff Gordon
- Fewest starts before a win (tied) Jamie McMurray, 2002 UAW-GM Quality 500, charlotte, Trevor Bayne, 2011 Daytona 500
- Most wins in a season: 27, Richard Petty
- Most wins in a modern era season: 13 (tied), Jeff Gordon and Richard Petty
- Most Top 10's in a modern era season: 30, Jeff Gordon(2007)
- Most starts in a career: 1,185, Richard Petty
- Smallest margin of victory: 0.002 seconds (tied): Jimmie Johnson, 2011 Aaron's 499; Ricky Craven, 2003 Carolina Dodge Dealers 400
- Largest margin of victory by laps: 22 laps, Ned Jarrett, Spartanburg 1965
- Largest margin of victory by distance: 19.25 miles (30.98 km), Ned Jarrett, 1965 Southern 500
- Most consecutive seasons with at least one win: 18, Richard Petty, 1960–1977
- Most consecutive starts: 788 starts, Ricky Rudd (Called "Iron Man")
- Youngest race winner: Joey Logano, 19 years, 35 days (2009 Lenox Tools 301)
- Oldest race winner: Harry Gant, 52 years, 219 days (1992 Champion Spark Plug 400)
- Most lead changes in a race: 2010 Aaron's 499 (88 lead changes among 29 drivers)
- Youngest Daytona 500 winner: Trevor Bayne, 20 years, 1 day, 2011
- Fastest qualifying speed: Bill Elliott, 212.809 mph at Talladega (1987 First Union 400)
List of Manufacturers Champions
Year Manufacturer 1949 Oldsmobile 1950 Oldsmobile 1951 Oldsmobile 1952 Hudson 1953 Hudson 1954 Hudson 1955 Chrysler 1956 Chrysler 1957 Ford 1958 Chevrolet 1959 Chevrolet 1960 Ford 1961 Pontiac 1962 Pontiac 1963 Ford 1964 Ford 1965 Ford 1966 Dodge 1967 Plymouth 1968 Ford 1969 Ford 1970 Plymouth 1971 Chevrolet 1972 Chevrolet 1973 Mercury (automobile) 1974 Chevrolet 1975 Dodge 1976 Chevrolet 1977 Chevrolet 1978 Oldsmobile 1979 Chevrolet 1980 Chevrolet 1981 Buick 1982 Buick 1983 Chevrolet 1984 Chevrolet 1985 Chevrolet/Ford 1986 Chevrolet 1987 Chevrolet 1988 Ford 1989 Chevrolet 1990 Chevrolet 1991 Chevrolet 1992 Ford 1993 Chevrolet 1994 Ford 1995 Chevrolet 1996 Chevrolet 1997 Ford 1998 Chevrolet 1999 Ford 2000 Ford 2001 Chevrolet 2002 Ford 2003 Chevrolet 2004 Ford 2005 Chevrolet 2006 Chevrolet 2007 Chevrolet 2008 Chevrolet 2009 Chevrolet 2010 Chevrolet
- 2011 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
- List of Sprint Cup champions
- List of NASCAR all-time cup winners
- List of NASCAR teams
- List of NASCAR drivers
- List of NASCAR race tracks
- Stock car racing
- Nationwide Series
- Camping World Truck Series
- Sprint Cup (trophy)
- NASCAR rules and regulations
- ^ a b NASCAR.COM – Officials to announce series name change to Sprint Cup – Jul 6, 2007
- ^ "All About NASCAR". ShaveMagazine.com. http://www.shavemagazine.com/cars/090601.
- ^ Jayski.com 2009 NASCAR Sprint Cup TV Ratings' Retrieved August 21, 2009
- ^ "Strictly Stock Standings and Statistics for 1949" page of Racing-Reference website , retrieved 9 May 2007.
- ^ a b Fielden, Greg, "NASCAR Cleans Up", Speedway Illustrated, September 2004.
- ^ Mitchell, Jason, "How Do They Do That?: Winston Cup Point System", Stock Car Racing (ISSN 0734-7340), Volume 36, Number 10, October 2001.
- ^ Fielden, Greg. NASCAR Chronicle. Publications International, Ltd., Lincolnwood, Illinois, USA, 2006. p. 36.
- ^ DarlingtonRaceway.com "Darlington Legends: Million Dollar Bill" Retrieved 7/5/09
- ^ TheAutoChannel.com "Winston to Substitute "No Bull 5" for "Winston Million"" Retrieved 7/5/09
- ^ Autoracing1.com "NASCAR's Greatest Moments — Part 3" Retrieved March 12, 2009
- ^ Forbes.com "NASCAR Pulls Into Prime Time" Retrieved August 22, 2009
- ^ Racingone.com, "Nextel Cup Unveiled" Retrieved 8–4–08
- ^ Desertnews.com "Is NASCAR losing traditional fan base?" Retrieved March 12, 2009
- ^ Insider Racing News.com "NASCAR's Brian France: Finally Answering the Clue Phone?" Retrieved March 2, 2009
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- ^ NASCAR.com "Waltrip race team finds important asset in partner" 2/15/08
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- ^ ESPN.com "Wallace wins Daytona's first truck race" Retrieved March 19, 2009
- ^ a b NASCAR.com "Harvick pleased after testing Car of Tomorrow" Retrieved August 29, 2005
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- ^ Race Engine Technology Issue 027
- ^ Talladega Superspeedway Information
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- ^ NASCAR.com Chevrolet working hard on its car of the future, Retrieved January 20, 2011
- ^ http://www.nascar.com/races/cup/2003/data/standings_manufacturer.html
- ^ http://www.racing-reference.info/wc.htm
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