- Amade Aba
Amade Aba (? –
5 September, 1311, Kassa, today "Košice" in Slovakia) was a Hungarian oligarch in the Kingdom of Hungarywho ruled "de facto" independently the northern and north-eastern counties of the kingdom (today parts of Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine). He held the office of Palatine "(nádor)" several times (1288-1289, 1290-1291, 1293, 1295-1296, 1297-1298, 1299-1301, 1302-1310), and he was also the Judge of the Royal Court "(országbíró)" twice (1283, 1289). He was assassinated at the south gate in the city of Kassa by one of the Angevin dynasty supportersFact|date=July 2008.
Amade Aba was the son of David, a member of the "Genus Aba" a strong Hungarian baron. (Clan Aba). He fought in the
Battle of Marchfeldin the troops King Ladislaus IV of Hungarysent to King Rudolph I of Germanyagainst King Ottokar II of Bohemia( 26 August 1278). In 1280, Amade became the head of Hermannstadt (today "Sibiu" in Romania), "i.e.", the royal officer appointed to administer the Transylvanian Saxons. King Ladislaus IV appointed him to the office of Judge of the Royal Court in 1283. In February 1285, he fought successfully against the Mongols who were pillaging the the north-eastern parts of the kingdom.
The powerful magnate
9 August 1288, Amade became Palatine and he hold the office for the first time until 1289 when he received the office of the Judge of the Royal Court again. Later, he rebelled against the king whose troops occupied one of his castles, Tokaj(before 27 May 1290). Following the king's death ( 10 July 1290), Amade became the loyal supporter of King Andrew III of Hungarywho appointed him Palatine. Although the king appointed a new Palatine already in 1291, he still continued to use the title until his death, and later he was confirmed in the office several times by the kings. After 1297, Amade was among the most powerful supporters of King Andrew III and he even made a formal allience with the king and his other followers in the second half of 1298.
When King Andrew III died (
14 January 1301), some of the powerful aristocrats (Amade was among them) became the supporters of Wenceslaus, the crown princeof Bohemia, while others supported the claim of Charles, a member of the Angevin dynasty. However, Wenceslaus left the kingdom (August 1304), and shortly afterwards, Amade concluded an agreement with Charles and Duke Rudolph III of Austria against Wenceslaus' father, King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. In 1304 and 1305, Amade gave military assistance to Duke Władysław of Cuiavia against King Wenceslaus II who had occupied Lesser Poland.
Amade was present at the Assembly of Rákos (
10 October 1307) where the participants confirmed Charles' claim for the throne. Charles was proclaimed king at the Assembly in Pest ( 27 November 1308), in the presence of Amade. In 1308, he became the head "(ispán)" of Szepes. Amade was present when King Charles was crowned in Buda( 15 June 1309). Afterwards, he mediated between the king and Ladislaus Kán, the powerful Voivod of Transylvania who made a promise that he would transfer the Holy Crown of Hungaryto the king.
King Charles deprived him of his offices around May 1310. In the course of the year, Amade occupied several castles. He wanted to expand his influence over Kassa, but the citizens rebelled against him and they killed Amade in a skirmish.
Amade and his brother, Finta inherited Nevicke (today Nyevickoje,
Ukraine) from their father, where Amade had a castle built. They may also have inherited Szokoly (today "Sokol"' in Slovakia). His dominion developed gradually in the course of the last decades of the 13th century. In 1288, King Ladislaus IV granted him the County Ung, thus he could hold the former royal possessions in the county until his death. Around 1300, he acquired Boldogkő Castle and Gönc, later he also held Regéc. In 1310, he occupied Lubló (today "Stará Ľubovňa" in Slovakia) and Munkács (today "Mukachevo" in Ukraine).
He usurped the
Royal Prerogativein his dominion, e.g. he granted lands and nobility to his followers. Amade governed his possessions from his seat in Gönc.
Following his death, his sons could not maintain his power, and after their defeat at the
Battle of Rozgony(today "Rozhanovce" in Slovakia) his dominion disintegrated. Most of his castles and possessions were obtained by members of the Drugethfamily in the 1320s-1340s.
*Markó, László: A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig - Életrajzi Lexikon "(The High Officers of the Hungarian State from Saint Stephen to the Present Days - A Biographical Encyclopedia)"; Magyar Könyvklub, 2000, Budapest; ISBN 963 547 085 1.
*Engel, Pál: Magyarország világi archontológiája (1301-1457) "(The Temporal Archontology of Hungary (1301-1457))"; História - MTA Történettudományi Intézete, 1996, Budapest; ISBN 963 8312 43 2.
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