Indie rock


Indie rock
Indie rock
Stylistic origins Alternative rock, punk rock, post-punk, hardcore punk, New Wave
Cultural origins Early 1980s, United Kingdom, United States and Canada
Typical instruments Guitar, bass, drums, keyboard, vocals
Mainstream popularity Moderate to High in North America, Japan and the United Kingdom since the late 2000s
Subgenres
Garage punk, riot grrrl, indie pop, emo, garage rock/post-punk revival, noise pop, dance-punk, New Weird America, Baroque pop, lo-fi, sadcore, C86, math rock
Fusion genres
Grindie - indie pop - indie folk - indie dance - indie electronic - new rave
Regional scenes
Largely global, England – IrelandScotlandWalesUSACanadaSwedenJapanAustraliaIndonesiaFranceTurkey
Other topics
Timeline of alternative rock, DIY ethic

Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. Indie rock is extremely diverse, with sub-genres that include lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, indie pop, dream pop, noise rock, space rock, sadcore, riot grrrl and emo, among others. Originally used to describe record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. As grunge and punk revival bands in the US, and then Britpop bands in the UK, broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground and less testosterone driven perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, a number of indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term.

Contents

Characteristics

Indie rock, derived from "independent", describes the small and relatively low budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are often struck with major corporate companies these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds, emotions and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.[1] The influences and styles of the artists has been extremely diverse, including punk, psychedelia, rock and country.[2] The terms alternative rock and indie rock were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s it began to be used to distinguish those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success.[1]

Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of styles that are: "too sensitive and melancholy; too soft and delicate; too dreamy and hypnotic; too personal and intimately revealing in its lyrics; too low-fidelity and low-budget in its production; too angular in its melodies and riffs; too raw, skronky and abrasive, wrapped in too many sheets of Sonic Youth/Dinosaur Jr./Pixies/Jesus & Mary Chain-style guitar noise; too oblique and fractured in its song structures; too influenced by experimental or otherwise unpopular musical styles." Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands like The Cranberries and Superchunk, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.[3] Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but virtually unknown outside them.[4]

Indie rock has been identified as a reaction against the "macho" culture that developed in alternative rock in the aftermath of Nirvana's success.[1] It has been noted that indie rock has a relatively high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear.[5]

History

Origins: 1980s

College rock and noise rock

The Jesus and Mary Chain performing in California in 2007

In the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves.[2] The indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock[6] that dominated college radio playlists which included key bands like R.E.M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK.[7] These bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s[8][9] and helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop; Other important bands in the genre included the dB's and Let's Active from the US and The Housemartins and The La's from the UK. In the United States, the term was particularly associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of Hüsker Dü, Sonic Youth, Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr., Pixies and The Replacements.[7] The most abrasive and discordant outgrowth of punk was noise rock, which emphasised loud distorted electric guitars bands and powerful drums and was pioneered by bands including Sonic Youth, Swans, Big Black and Butthole Surfers.[10] A number of prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. These include Washington, DC's Dischord Records in 1980, Seattle's Sub Pop Records in 1986[11] and New York City's Matador Records and Durham, North Carolina's Merge Records in 1989. Chicago's Touch and Go Records was founded as a fanzine in 1979 and began to release records during the 1980s.[12]

Indie pop

In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME premium featuring such bands as The Wedding Present, Primal Scream, The Pastels, and the Soup Dragons, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, and gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, which was a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole.[13][14] Major precursors of indie pop included Aztec Camera, Josef K and Orange Juice and major labels included Sarah, Bus Stop and Summershine.[15] The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet Underground's "melancholy noise" with Beach Boys pop melodies and Phil Spector's "Wall of Sound" production,[16][17] while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house music.[18] The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr, indie pop and the dream pop of Cocteau Twins, were the formative influences for the shoegazing movement of the late 1980s. Named for the band members' tendency to stare at their feet and guitar effects pedals onstage rather than interact with the audience, acts like My Bloody Valentine, and later Slowdive, Ride, and Lush created a loud "wash of sound" that obscured vocals and melodies with long, droning riffs, distortion, and feedback.[19] The other major movement at the end of the 1980s was the drug-fuelled Madchester scene. Based around The Haçienda, a nightclub in Manchester owned by New Order and Factory Records, Madchester bands such as Happy Mondays and The Stone Roses mixed acid house dance rhythms, Northern soul and funk with melodic guitar pop.[20]

Development: 1990s

Alternative enters the mainstream

Pavement singer/guitarist Steve Malkmus

The 1990s brought major changes to the alternative rock scene. Grunge bands such as Soundgarden, Nirvana, Alice in Chains and Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream, achieving commercial chart success and widespread exposure.[1] Punk revival bands like Green Day and The Offspring also became popular and were grouped under the "alternative" umbrella.[3] Similarly, in the United Kingdom Britpop saw bands like Blur and Oasis emerged into the mainstream, abandoning the regional, small-scale and political elements of the 1980s indie scene.[21] As a result of these changes the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning and began to refer to the new, commercially lighter, form of music that was now achieving mainstream success. The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status.[1] Ryan Moore has argued that in the wake of the appropriation of alternative rock by the corporate music industry that what became known as indie rock increasingly turned to the past to produce forms of "retro" rock that drew on rockabilly, blues, country, swing and garage rock.[22]

Diversification

By the end of the 1990s indie rock developed a number of sub-genres and related styles, in addition to indie pop and dream pop these included lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, noise pop, space rock, sadcore, and emo.[1] Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D.I.Y. ethos and was spearheaded by Beck, Sebadoh and Pavement,[3] who were joined by eclectic folk and rock acts of the Elephant 6 collective, including Neutral Milk Hotel, Elf Power and Of Montreal.[23] The work of Talk Talk and Slint helped inspire both post rock, an experimental style influenced by jazz and electronic music, pioneered by Bark Psychosis and taken up by acts such as Tortoise, Stereolab, and Laika,[24][25] as well as leading to more dense and complex, guitar-based math rock, developed by acts like Polvo and Chavez.[26] Space rock looked back to progressive roots, with drone heavy and minimalist acts like Spaceman 3 in the 1980s, the two bands created out of its split, Spectrum and Spiritualized, and later groups including Flying Saucer Attack, Godspeed You Black Emperor! and Quickspace.[27] In contrast, Sadcore emphasised pain and suffering through melodic use of acoustic and electronic instrumentation in the music of bands like American Music Club and Red House Painters,[28] while the revival of Baroque pop reacted against lo-fi and experimental music by placing an emphasis on melody and classical instrumentation, with artists like Arcade Fire, Belle and Sebastian and Rufus Wainright.[29] The emo movement, which had grown out of the hardcore punk scene in the 1980s with bands like Fugazi and Rites of Spring, gained popularity as the 1990s progressed. Elliott, Sunny Day Real Estate, The Promise Ring, The Get Up Kids and others brought a more melodic sound to the genre.[30][31] Weezer's Pinkerton (1996) introduced the genre to a wider and more mainstream audience.[32]

Mainstream success: 2000s–present

In the 2000s, the changing music industry, the decline in record sales, the growth of new digital technology and increased use of the internet as a tool for music promotion, allowed a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success.[33] This new commercial breakthrough and the widespread use of the term indie to other forms of popular culture, led a number of commentators to suggest that indie rock has ceased to be a meaningful term.[34][35]

Garage rock/post-punk revival

The Strokes on stage in 2005

In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, New Wave or post-punk revival.[36][37][38][39] Because the bands came from across the globe, cited diverse influences (from traditional blues, through New Wave to grunge), and adopted differing styles of dress, their unity as a genre has been disputed.[40] There had been attempts to revive garage rock and elements of punk in the 1980s and 1990s and by 2000 scenes had grown up in several countries.[41] The Detroit rock scene included The Von Bondies, Electric Six, The Dirtbombs and The Detroit Cobras[42] and that of New York Radio 4, Yeah Yeah Yeahs and The Rapture.[43] Elsewhere, the Oblivians from Memphis[44] Billy Childish and The Buff Medways from Britain,[45] The (International) Noise Conspiracy from Sweden,[46] and The 5.6.7.8's from Japan,[47] enjoyed underground, regional or national success.

The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, who emerged from the New York club scene with their début album Is This It (2001); The White Stripes, from Detroit, with their third album White Blood Cells (2001); The Hives from Sweden after their compilation album Your New Favourite Band (2001); and The Vines from Australia with Highly Evolved (2002).[48] They were christened by the media as the "The" bands, and dubbed "The saviours of rock 'n' roll", leading to accusations of hype.[49] A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included The Black Keys, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Modest Mouse, The Killers, Interpol and Kings of Leon from the US.[50] From the UK were Franz Ferdinand, Bloc Party, Editors and The Libertines,[51] The Fratellis, Placebo, Razorlight, Kaiser Chiefs and The Kooks.[52] Arctic Monkeys were the most prominent act to owe their initial commercial success to the use of Internet social networking.[53] Also successful were Jet from Australia[54] and The Datsuns and The D4 from New Zealand.[55]

Emo

Emo also broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the platinum-selling success of Jimmy Eat World's Bleed American (2001) and Dashboard Confessional's The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most (2003).[56] The new emo had a much more mainstream sound then in the 1990s and a far greater appeal amongst adolescents than its earlier incarnations.[56] At the same time, use of the term emo expanded beyond the musical genre, becoming associated with fashion, a hairstyle and any music that expressed emotion.[57] The term emo has been applied by critics and journalists to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts such as Fall Out Boy[58] and My Chemical Romance[59] and disparate groups such as Paramore[58] and Panic at the Disco,[60] even when they protest the label.

"Indie landfill"

Arcade Fire at Rock en Seine in 2007

Existing indie bands that were now able to enter the mainstream included more musically and emotionally complex bands[61] including Modest Mouse, whose 2004 album Good News for People Who Love Bad News reached the US top 40 and was nominated for a Grammy Award, Bright Eyes who in 2004 had two singles at the top of the Billboard magazine Hot 100 Single Sales[62] and Death Cab for Cutie whose 2005 album Plans debuted at number four in the US, remaining on the Billboard charts for nearly one year and achieving platinum status and a Grammy nomination.[63] By the end of the decade the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill",[64] a description coined by Andrew Harrison of The Word magazine,[65] and the dominance of pop and other forms of music over guitar-based indie was leading to predictions of the end of indie rock. However, there continued to be commercial successes like Kasabian's West Ryder Pauper Lunatic Asylum (2009), which reached number one in the UK.[66] In 2010, Canadian band Arcade Fire's album The Suburbs reached number one on the Billboard charts in the United States and the official chart in the United Kingdom, winning a Grammy for Album of The Year.[67]

Indie electronic

Indie electronic, which had begun in the early 1990s with bands like Stereolab and Disco Inferno, took off in the new millennium as the new digital technology developed, with acts including Broadcast from the UK, Justice from France, Lali Puna from Germany and The Postal Service, and Ratatat and BOBBY[68] from the US, mixing a variety of indie sounds with electronic music, largely produced on small independent labels.[69][70] In Britain the combination of indie with dance-punk was dubbed new rave in publicity for Klaxons and the term was picked up and applied by the NME to bands[71] including Trash Fashion,[72] New Young Pony Club,[73] Hadouken!, Late of the Pier, Test Icicles[74] and Shitdisco,[71] forming a scene with a similar visual aesthetic to earlier rave music.[71][75]

See also

Notes

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  • Indie Rock Chess Federation — The Indie Rock Chess Federation (IRCF) is a newly formed competitive chess organization for individuals affiliated with the independent music industry. Inspired by the Hip Hop Chess Federation http://www.hiphopchessfederation.org/(HHCF), the IRCF …   Wikipedia

  • Glamorous Indie Rock and Roll — «Glamorous Indie Rock and Roll» Canción de The Killers álbum Hot Fuss (bonus tracks) Publicación 15 de julio 2004 (Hot Fuss) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Australian indie rock — is part of the overall flow of Australian rock history but has a distinct history somewhat separate from mainstream rock in Australia, largely from the end of the punk rock era onwards.HistoryBeginningsRock and roll in Australia got started in… …   Wikipedia


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