Kaiser


Kaiser
Kaiser of the Austrian Empire, Franz I (1804–1835)

Kaiser is the German title meaning "Emperor", with Kaiserin being the female equivalent, "Empress". Like the Russian Czar it is directly derived from the Latin Emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens (clan) Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. Although the British monarchs styled "Emperor of India" were also called "Kaisar-i-Hind" in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek Kaisar, not the German Kaiser.[1]

In English, the term the Kaiser is usually reserved for the Emperors of the German Empire, the emperors of the Austrian Empire and those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the First World War, the term the Kaiser — especially as applied to Wilhelm II of Germany — gained considerable pejorative connotations in English-speaking countries.

German history and antecedents of the title

The Holy Roman Emperors (962–1806) called themselves Kaiser,[citation needed] combining the imperial title with that of Roman King (assumed by the designated heir before the imperial coronation); they saw their rule as a continuation of that of the Roman Emperors and used the title derived from the title Caesar to reflect their supposed heritage.[citation needed]

The rulers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1804–1918) were born in the Habsburg dynasty, who provided most of Holy Roman Emperors since 1438. The Austrian-Hungarian rulers adopted the title Kaiser. There have only been three Kaisers of the Austrian Empire, the successor empire to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation), and they have all belonged to the Habsburg dynasty. The successor empire to the Austrian Empire was termed the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which had only two Kaisers, both again from the Habsburg dynasty.

In 1871, there was much debate about the exact title for the monarch of those German territories (such as free imperial cities, principalities, duchies, and kingdoms) that agreed to unify under the leadership of Prussia, thereby forming the German Empire.[citation needed] Deutscher Kaiser ("German Emperor") was chosen over alternatives such as Kaiser von Deutschland ("Emperor of Germany"), or Kaiser der Deutschen ("Emperor of the Germans"),[citation needed] as the chosen title simply connoted that the new emperor, hearkening from Prussia, was a German, but did not imply that this new emperor had dominion over all German territories.[citation needed] There have only been three Kaisers of the (second) German Empire. All of them belonged to the Hohenzollern dynasty, which, as kings of Prussia, had been de facto leaders of lesser Germany.

In English the (untranslated) word Kaiser is mainly associated with the emperors of the unified German Empire (1871–1918), in particular with Kaiser Wilhelm II, and with the emperors of Austria-Hungary, in particular with Kaiser Franz Joseph I.[citation needed]

The Kaisers of the Austrian Empire (1804–1867) and of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918) were:

The Kaisers of the German Empire (1871–1918) were:

  • Wilhelm I (1871–1888);
  • Frederick III (1888), who ruled for 99 days;
  • Wilhelm II (1888–1918), during whose reign the monarchy in Germany ended near the end of World War I.

See also

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kaiser(in) — Kaiser(in) …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • Kaiser — Kaiser …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • kaiser — [ kɛzɛr; kajzɛr ] n. m. • 1871; mot all. « empereur », du lat. Cæsar ♦ Le Kaiser : l empereur d Allemagne (de 1871 à 1918); spécialt Guillaume II (1888 1918). ● Kaiser nom masculin (mot allemand, du latin Caesar) Empereur d Allemagne, en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kaiser Ka 3 — Kaiser Ka 1 Le Kaiser Ka 1 est un planeur monoplace allemand dessiné par Rudolf Kaiser, qui dessinera les premiers planeurs produits en grande série par la firme Alexander Schleicher GmbH Co après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Versions Kaiser Ka 1… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kaiser — Расположение Берлин, Германия Веб сайт …   Википедия

  • Kaiser — / kaizər/, it. / kaiser/ (o, all ital., kaiser) s.m., ted. [dal lat. Caesar Cesare; imperatore ]. 1. (stor.) [titolo che spettava al sovrano nei paesi di lingua tedesca] ▶◀ imperatore. ‖ zar. 2. (con iniziale minusc.) (estens., eufem.) [spec. in… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • Kaiser — Kaiser: Das altgerm. Substantiv (mhd. keiser, ahd. keisar, got. kaisar, niederl. keizer, aengl. cāsere) ist vermutlich das älteste lat. Lehnwort im Germanischen. Es geht auf den Beinamen des römischen Diktators C. Julius Caesar zurück, der von… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Kaiser [1] — Kaiser (franz. Empereur, engl. Emperor), der höchste Titel eines weltlichen Fürsten. Er kommt von dem lateinischen Caesar (s.d.) her, obgleich der K. in Rom nicht so, sondern Imperator od. Augustus (s. b.) hieß. Nach der Theilung des Römischen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Kaiser [3] — Kaiser, 1) Frederik, Astronom, geb. 10. Juni 1808 in Amsterdam, gest. 28. Juni 1872 in Leiden, wurde 1826 Observator, 1837 Direktor der Leidener Sternwarte, 1840 Professor der Astronomie an der Universität. K. war ein vorzüglicher astronomischer… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kaiser — (vom lat. Familiennamen Caesar), im altröm. Reich Titel der Mitregenten und Thronfolger, später auch der röm. Beherrscher selber, von Karl d. Gr. (800) als höchste weltliche Würde der Christenheit erneuert, seit Otto d. Gr. (962) mit dem… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kaiser — Sm std. (8. Jh.), mhd. keiser, ahd. keisur, keisar, as. kēsur Onomastische Bildung. Gehen mit ae. Cāsere, gt. kaisar zurück auf eine der ältesten Entlehnungen des Germanischen aus dem Lateinischen: Der Herrschertitel l. Caesar, übernommen aus dem …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache


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