The Catcher in the Rye


The Catcher in the Rye
The Catcher in the Rye  
Rye catcher.jpg
First edition cover
Author(s) J. D. Salinger
Cover artist E. Michael Mitchell[1][2]
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Little, Brown and Company
Publication date 16 July 1951
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
Pages 214 pp
ISBN 0-316-76953-3
OCLC Number 287628

The Catcher in the Rye is a 1951 novel by J. D. Salinger.[3] Originally published for adults, it has since become popular with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage confusion, angst, alienation, language,[4] and rebellion.[5] It has been translated into almost all of the world's major languages.[6] Around 250,000 copies are sold each year, with total sales of more than 65 million books.[7] The novel's protagonist and antihero, Holden Caulfield, has become an icon for teenage rebellion.[8]

The novel was included on Time's 2005 list of the 100 best English-language novels written since 1923,[9] and it was named by Modern Library and its readers as one of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. It has been frequently challenged[10][11][12] in the United States and other countries for its liberal use of profanity and portrayal of sexuality and teenage angst. It also deals with complex issues of identity, belonging, connection, and alienation.

Contents

Plot summary

The majority of the novel takes place in December 1949. The story commences with Holden Caulfield describing encounters he has had with students and faculty of Pencey Prep (In addition, scholars often compare Pencey Prep to Valley Forge Military Academy, which Salinger attended from the ages of 15 to 17) in Agerstown, Pennsylvania . He criticizes them for being superficial, or, as he would say, "phony." After being expelled from the school for his poor academic performance, Holden packs up and leaves the school in the middle of the night after a physical altercation with his roommate. He takes a train to New York but does not want to return to his family and instead checks into the dilapidated Edmont Hotel. There, he spends an evening dancing with three tourist girls and has a clumsy encounter with a young prostitute named Sunny.[13] His attitude toward the prostitute changes the minute she enters the room, because she seems to be about the same age as Holden. Holden becomes uncomfortable with the situation, and when he tells her that all he wants to do is talk, she becomes annoyed with him and leaves. However, he still pays her for her time. Sunny and Maurice, her pimp, later return to Holden's hotel room and demand more money than was originally agreed upon. Despite the fact that Sunny takes five dollars from Holden's wallet, Maurice punches Holden in the stomach.

Holden calls up his old girlfriend, Sally Hayes, to invite her to see a musical. Sally very excitedly agrees, and they meet for the play. After the play Holden and Sally go skating, and while drinking coffee Holden impulsively invites Sally to run away with him, but she declines. Her response deflates Holden's mood, which prompts a remark: "You give me a royal pain in the ass, if you want to know the truth" , he tells her, regretting it immediately. Sally storms off as Holden follows, pleading with her to accept his apology. Finally, Holden gives up and leaves her there. Holden spends a total of three days in the city, and this time is characterized largely by drunkenness and loneliness. At one point he ends up at a museum, where he contrasts his life with the statues of Eskimos on display. For as long as he can remember, the statues have been unchanging. These concerns may have stemmed largely from the death of his brother, Allie. Eventually, he sneaks into his parents' apartment while they are away, to visit his younger sister, Phoebe, who is the only person with whom he seems to be able to communicate. Phoebe views Holden as a hero, and she is naively unaware that Holden's view of her is virtually identical. Holden shares a fantasy he has been thinking about (based on a mishearing of Robert Burns' Comin' Through the Rye): he pictures himself as the sole guardian of numerous children running and playing in a huge rye field on the edge of a cliff. His job is to catch the children if they wander close to the brink; to be a "catcher in the rye." Because of this misinterpretation, Holden believes that to be a "catcher in the rye" means to save children from losing their innocence.

After leaving his parents' apartment, Holden drops by to see a former and much admired English teacher, Mr. Antolini, in the middle of the night, and is offered advice on life and a place to sleep. Mr. Antolini tells Holden that it is the mark of the mature man to live humbly for a cause, rather than die nobly for it. This is at odds with Holden's ideas of becoming a "catcher in the rye," a heroic figure who symbolically saves children from "falling off a crazy cliff" and being exposed to the evils of adulthood. During the speech on life, Mr. Antolini has a number of "highballs," referring to a cocktail served in a highball glass. Holden is upset when he wakes up in the night to find Mr. Antolini patting his head in a way that he regards as "flitty." There is much speculation on whether Mr. Antolini was making a sexual advance on Holden, but it is more likely that Holden does not recognize a fatherly gesture when he encounters one. Holden leaves and spends his last afternoon wandering the city. He later wonders if his interpretation of Mr. Antolini's actions was actually correct.

Holden makes the decision that he will head out west, and when he mentions these plans to his little sister, she decides she wants to go with him. Holden declines her offer and refuses to have her accompany him. This upsets Phoebe, so Holden does her a favor and decides not to leave after all. Holden tries to reverse her saddened mood by taking her to the Central Park Zoo. He realizes his mistake as she rides the carousel that lies within the zoo. At the conclusion of the novel, Holden decides not to mention much about the present day, finding it inconsequential. He alludes to "getting sick" and living in a mental hospital, and mentions that he'll be attending another school in September; he relates how he has been asked whether he will apply himself properly to study this time around and questions whether such a question has any meaning before the fact. Holden says that he has surprisingly found himself missing two of his former classmates, Stradlater and Ackley, and even Maurice, the elevator operator/pimp; and warns the reader that telling others about their experiences will lead them to miss the people who shared them, whoever they are: “Don’t ever tell anybody anything. If you do, you start missing everybody.”

History

Various older stories by Salinger contain characters similar to those in The Catcher in the Rye. While at Columbia University, Salinger wrote a short story called "Young Folks" in Whit Burnett's class; one character from this story has been described as a "thinly penciled prototype of Sally Hayes". In November 1941, Salinger sold the story "Slight Rebellion off Madison", which featured Holden Caulfield, to The New Yorker, but it was not published until December 21, 1946, due to World War II. The story "I'm Crazy", which was published in the December 22, 1945, issue of Collier's, contained material that was later used in The Catcher in the Rye. A ninety-page manuscript about Holden Caulfield was accepted by The New Yorker for publication in 1946, but it was later withdrawn by Salinger.[14]

Writing style

The Catcher in the Rye is written in a subjective style from the point of view of its protagonist, Holden Caulfield, following his exact thought processes. There is flow in the seemingly disjointed ideas and episodes; for example, as Holden sits in a chair in his dorm, minor events such as picking up a book or looking at a table, unfold into discussions about experiences.

When we looked deeply at Salinger's language we can see the effects of the unreliable narrator and Holden's over excited, disapproved, hyper actions. The word choice old, bastard and more is the reflection of Holden's psychosis and his problem which is not getting used to the truth; the truth that his brother Allie is dead. Salinger's sentence structure is disordered, streamed of conscious , truncated and short to make sure the reader understood Holden's problem.He emphasized Holden's ideas, reactions by repeating words and sentences which Holden used to impress himself.

Critical reviews agree that the novel accurately reflected the teenage colloquial speech of the time.[15] Words and phrases that frequently appear include:

  • "Phony": Superficial, hypocritical, pretentious
  • "That killed me": I found that hilarious or astonishing
  • "Flit": Homosexual
  • "Flitty": Homosexual behavior
  • Wuddya:(the ya slang) vernacular rendering, idiomatic

Interpretations

Writer Bruce Brooks held that Holden's attitude remains unchanged at story's end, implying no maturation, thus differentiating the novel from young adult fiction.[16] In contrast, writer and academic Louis Menand thought that teachers assign the novel because of the optimistic ending, to teach adolescent readers that "alienation is just a phase."[17] While Brooks maintained that Holden acts his age, Menand claimed that Holden thinks as an adult, given his ability to accurately perceive people and their motives such as when Phoebe states that she will go out west with Holden, and he immediately rejects this idea as ridiculous, much to Phoebe's disappointment. Others highlight the dilemma of Holden's state, in between adolescence and adulthood.[18][19] While Holden views himself to be smarter than and as mature as adults, he is quick to become emotional. "I felt sorry as hell for..." is a phrase he often uses.[18]

Peter Beidler, in his A Reader's Companion to J.D. Salinger's "The Catcher in the Rye", identifies the movie that the prostitute "Sunny" refers to in chapter 13 of The Catcher in the Rye. She says that in the movie a boy falls off a boat. The movie is Captains Courageous, starring Spencer Tracy. Sunny says that Holden looks like the boy who fell off the boat. Beidler shows (page 28) a still of the boy, played by child-actor Freddie Bartholomew.

The novel's philosophy has been negatively compared with that of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[20][clarification needed]

Each Caulfield child has literary talent: D. B. writes screenplays in Hollywood; Holden also reveres D. B. for his writing skill (Holden's own best subject), but he also despises Hollywood industry-based movies, considering them the ultimate in "phony" as the writer has no space for his own imagination, and describes D. B.'s move to Hollywood to write for films as "prostituting himself"; Allie wrote poetry on his baseball glove; and Phoebe is a diarist.[21][not in citation given] This "catcher in the rye" is an analogy for Holden, who admires in kids attributes that he struggles to find in adults, like innocence, kindness, spontaneity, and generosity. Falling off the cliff could be a progression into the adult world that surrounds him and that he strongly criticizes. Later, Phoebe and Holden exchange roles as the "catcher" and the "fallen"; he gives her his hunting hat, the catcher's symbol, and becomes the fallen as Phoebe becomes the catcher.[22]

Reception

The Catcher in the Rye has been listed as one of the best novels of the 20th century. Shortly after its publication, writing for The New York Times, Nash K. Burger called it "an unusually brilliant novel,"[23] while James Stern wrote an admiring review of the book in a voice imitating Holden's.[24] 41st United States president George H. W. Bush called it "a marvelous book," listing it among the books that have inspired him.[25] In June 2009, the BBC's Finlo Rohrer wrote that, 58 years since publication, the book is still regarded "as the defining work on what it is like to be a teenager. Holden is at various times disaffected, disgruntled, alienated, isolated, directionless, and sarcastic."[26] Adam Gopnik considers it one of the "three perfect books" in American literature, along with Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Great Gatsby, and believes that "no book has ever captured a city better than Catcher in the Rye captured New York in the fifties."[27]

Not all reception has been positive, however; the book has had its share of critics. Rohrer writes, "Many of these readers are disappointed that the novel fails to meet the expectations generated by the mystique it is shrouded in. J. D. Salinger has done his part to enhance this mystique. That is to say, he has done nothing."[26] Rohrer assessed the reasons behind both the popularity and criticism of the book, saying that it "captures existential teenage angst" and has a "complex central character" and "accessible conversational style"; while at the same time some readers may dislike the "use of 1940s New York vernacular," "self-obsessed central character," and "too much whining."[26]

Controversy

In 1960 a teacher was fired for assigning the novel in class; he was later reinstated.[28][dead link] Between 1961 and 1982, The Catcher in the Rye was the most censored book in high schools and libraries in the United States.[29] In 1981 it was both the most censored book and the second most taught book in public schools in the United States.[30] According to the American Library Association, The Catcher in the Rye was the tenth most frequently challenged book from 1990–1999.[10] It was one of the ten most challenged books of 2005[31] and although it had been off the list for three years, it reappeared in the list of most challenged books of 2009.[32] The challenges generally begin with Holden's frequent use of vulgar language,[33][34] with other reasons including sexual references,[35] blasphemy, undermining of family values[34] and moral codes,[36] Holden's being a poor role model,[37] encouragement of rebellion,[38] and promotion of drinking, smoking, lying, and promiscuity.[36] Often the challengers have been unfamiliar with the plot itself.[29] Shelley Keller-Gage, a high school teacher who faced objections after assigning the novel in her class, noted that the challengers "are being just like Holden... They are trying to be catchers in the rye."[34] A reverse effect has been that this incident caused people to put themselves on the waiting list to borrow the novel, when there were none before.[39]

Mark David Chapman's shooting of John Lennon (Chapman was arrested with his worn copy of the book, and inside, he had scribbled a note: "This is my statement, From Holden Caulfield."), Robert John Bardo's shooting of Rebecca Schaeffer, and John Hinckley, Jr.'s assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan have also been associated with the novel.[40][41]

In 2009 Salinger successfully sued to stop the U.S. publication of a novel that presents Holden Caulfield as an old man.[26][42] The novel's author, Fredrik Colting, commented, "call me an ignorant Swede, but the last thing I thought possible in the U.S. was that you banned books."[43] The issue is complicated by the nature of Colting's book, 60 Years Later: Coming Through the Rye, which has been compared to fan fiction.[44] Although commonly not authorized by writers, no legal action is usually taken[45] against fan fiction since it is rarely published commercially and thus involves no profit. Colting, however, has published his book commercially. Unauthorized fan fiction on The Catcher in the Rye existed on the Internet for years without any legal action taken by Salinger before his death.[44]

Attempted adaptations

Early in his career, Salinger expressed a willingness to have his work adapted for the screen.[46] However, in 1949, a critically panned film version of his short story "Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut" was released; renamed My Foolish Heart and taking great liberties with Salinger's plot, the film is widely considered to be among the reasons that Salinger refused to allow any subsequent movie adaptations of his work.[18][47] The enduring popularity of The Catcher in the Rye, however, has resulted in repeated attempts to secure the novel's screen rights.[48]

When The Catcher in the Rye was first released, many offers were made to adapt it for the screen; among them was Sam Goldwyn, producer of My Foolish Heart.[47] In a letter written in the early fifties, J. D. Salinger spoke of mounting a play in which he would play the role of Holden Caulfield opposite Margaret O'Brien, and, if he couldn’t play the part himself, to “forget about it." Almost fifty years later, the writer Joyce Maynard definitively concluded, "The only person who might ever have played Holden Caulfield would have been J. D. Salinger."[49]

J. D. Salinger told Maynard in the seventies that Jerry Lewis "tried for years to get his hands on the part of Holden,"[49] despite Lewis not having read the novel until he was in his thirties.[39] Celebrities ranging from Marlon Brando and Jack Nicholson to Tobey Maguire and Leonardo DiCaprio have since made efforts to make a film adaptation.[50] In an interview with Premiere magazine, John Cusack commented that his one regret about turning twenty-one was that he had become too old to play Holden Caulfield. Writer-director Billy Wilder recounted his abortive attempts to snare the novel's rights:

Of course I read The Catcher in the Rye....Wonderful book. I loved it. I pursued it. I wanted to make a picture out of it. And then one day a young man came to the office of Leland Hayward, my agent, in New York, and said, 'Please tell Mr. Leland Hayward to lay off. He’s very, very insensitive.' And he walked out. That was the entire speech. I never saw him. That was J. D. Salinger and that was Catcher in the Rye.[51]

In 1961 J. D. Salinger denied Elia Kazan permission to direct a stage adaptation of Catcher for Broadway.[52] More recently, Salinger's agents received bids for the Catcher movie rights from Harvey Weinstein and Steven Spielberg,[53][dead link] neither of which was even passed on to J. D. Salinger for consideration.

In 2003 the BBC television program The Big Read featured The Catcher in the Rye, intercutting discussions of the novel with "a series of short films that featured an actor playing J. D. Salinger's adolescent antihero, Holden Caulfield."[52] The show defended its unlicensed adaptation of the novel by claiming to be a "literary review", and no major charges were filed.

According to a speculative article in The Guardian in May 2006, there were rumors that director Terrence Malick had been linked to a possible screen adaptation of the novel.[54]

After J. D. Salinger's death in 2010, Phyllis Westberg, who was Salinger's agent at Harold Ober Associates, stated that nothing has changed in terms of licensing movie, television, or stage rights of his works.[55] A letter written by Salinger in 1957 revealed that he was open to an adaptation of The Catcher in the Rye released after his death. He wrote: "Firstly, it is possible that one day the rights will be sold. Since there's an ever-looming possibility that I won't die rich, I toy very seriously with the idea of leaving the unsold rights to my wife and daughter as a kind of insurance policy. It pleasures me no end, though, I might quickly add, to know that I won't have to see the results of the transaction."[56]

In popular culture

References to The Catcher in the Rye in media and popular culture are numerous. Works inspired by the novel have been said to form their own genre.[17] Dr. Sarah Graham assessed works influenced by The Catcher in the Rye to include the novels Less Than Zero by Bret Easton Ellis, The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky, A Complicated Kindness by Miriam Toews, The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath, and Ordinary People by Judith Guest.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "CalArts Remembers Beloved Animation Instructor E. Michael Mitchell". Calarts.edu. http://calarts.edu/news/11-sep-2009/calartsremembersbelovedanimationinstructoremichaelmitchell. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  2. ^ "50 Most Captivating Covers". Onlineuniversities.com. http://www.onlineuniversities.com/blog/2010/01/judging-the-book-50-most-captivating-covers-of-all-time/. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  3. ^ Los Angeles Times, Jan. 29, 2010. http://www.latimes.com/features/books/la-et-salinger29-2010jan29,0,578438.story
  4. ^ Costello, Donald P., and Harold Bloom. "The Language of "The Catcher in the Rye.." Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations: The Catcher in the Rye (2000): 11-20. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2010.
  5. ^ Michael hi (2000-11-15). "Famous Firsts. (young-adult literature)". Booklist. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-28671475_ITM. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  6. ^ Magill, Frank N. (1991). "J. D. Salinger". Magill's Survey of American Literature. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 1803. ISBN 1-85435-437-X. 
  7. ^ According to List of best-selling books. An earlier article says more than 20 million: Jonathan Yardley (2004-10-19). "J. D. Salinger's Holden Caulfield, Aging Gracelessly". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43680-2004Oct18.html. Retrieved 2007-01-21. 
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Allusions By Elizabeth Webber, Mike Feinsilber p.105
  9. ^ Grossman, Lev; Richard Lacayo (2005). "All-Time 100 Novels: The Complete List". Time. http://www.time.com/time/2005/100books/the_complete_list.html. 
  10. ^ a b "The 100 most frequently challenged books: 1990–1999". American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/challengedbydecade/1990_1999/index.cfm. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  11. ^ List of most commonly challenged books from the list of the one hundred most important books of the 20th century by Radcliffe Publishing Course
  12. ^ Jeff Guinn (2001-08-10). ""Catcher in the Rye" still influences 50 years later" (fee required). Erie Times-News. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=ET&p_theme=et&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EDCAD301800C85B&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  Alternate URL
  13. ^ "The Catcher in the Rye Characters." Dead Caulfields. Web. 23 June 2010.
  14. ^ Salzman, Jack (1991). New essays on the Catcher in the Rye. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. http://books.google.ca/books?id=ic6NhqIcWhQC&pg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  15. ^ Donald P. Costello (October 1959). "The Language of "The Catcher in the Rye"". American Speech (American Speech, Vol. 34, No. 3) 34 (3): 172–182. doi:10.2307/454038. JSTOR 454038. "Most critics who glared at The Catcher in the Rye at the time of its publication thought that its language was a true and authentic rendering of teenage colloquial speech." 
  16. ^ Bruce Brooks (2004-05-01). "Holden at sixteen". Horn Book Magazine. http://www.hbook.com/magazine/articles/2004/may04_brooks.asp. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  17. ^ a b Louis Menand (2001-09-27). "Holden at fifty". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2001/10/01/011001fa_FACT3?currentPage=all. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  18. ^ a b c Katrina Onstad (2008-02-22). "Beholden to Holden". CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/film/bartlett.html. 
  19. ^ Graham, 33.
  20. ^ Carl F. Strauch; Salinger (1961). "Kings in the Back Row: Meaning through Structure. A Reading of J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye". Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature (Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, Vol. 2, No. 1) 2 (1): 5–30. doi:10.2307/1207365. JSTOR 1207365. 
  21. ^ Margaret Dumais Svogun (Winter 2003). "J.D. Salinger's The catcher in the Rye". Explicator 2 (2): pp. 110–113. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9553015&site=ehost-live. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  22. ^ Yasuhiro Takeuchi (Fall 2002). "The Burning Carousel and the Carnivalesque: Subversion and Transcendence at the Close of The Catcher in the Rye". Studies in the Novel 34 (3): pp. 320–337. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7592838&site=ehost-live. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  23. ^ Nash K. Burger (1951-07-16). Rand-rye02.html "Books of The Times". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/09/13/specials/Ayn Rand-rye02.html. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  24. ^ James Stern (1951-07-15). "Aw, the World's a Crumby Place". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/09/13/specials/salinger-rye01.html. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  25. ^ "Academy of Achievement — George H. W. Bush". The American Academy of Achievement –. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/bus0int-1. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  26. ^ a b c d Rohrer, Finlo (June 5, 2009). "The why of the Rye". BBC News Magazine (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8084931.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  27. ^ Gopnik, Adam. The New Yorker, February 8, 2010, p. 21
  28. ^ Fernando Dutra (2006-09-25). "U. Connecticut: Banned Book Week celebrates freedom". The America's Intelligence Wire. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-18592168_ITM. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "In 1960 a teacher in Tulsa, Okla., was fired for assigning "The Catcher in the Rye". After appealing, the teacher was reinstated, but the book was removed from the itinerary in the school." 
  29. ^ a b "In Cold Fear: 'The Catcher in the Rye', Censorship, Controversies and Postwar American Character. (Book Review)". Modern Language Review. 2003-04-01. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-4139523_ITM. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  30. ^ Sylvia Andrychuk (2004-02-17). "A History of J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928072611/http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr559f/03-04-wt2/projects/S_Andrychuk/Content/history_book_catcher.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "During 1981 The Catcher in the Rye had the unusual distinction of being the most frequently censored book in the United States, and, at the same time, the second-most frequently taught novel in American public schools." 
  31. ^ "Top ten most frequently challenged books of 2005". American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/21stcenturychallenged/2006/index.cfm. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  32. ^ "Top ten most frequently challenged books of 2009". American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/21stcenturychallenged/2009/index.cfm. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  33. ^ "Art or trash? It makes for endless, debate that cant be won". The Topeka Capital-Journal. 1997-10-06. http://www.cjonline.com/stories/100697/snider.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "Another perennial target, J.D. Salinger's "Catcher in the Rye," was challenged in Maine because of the "f" word." 
  34. ^ a b c Seth Mydans (1989-09-03). "In a Small Town, a Battle Over a Book". The New York Times: p. 2. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE1D7103CF930A3575AC0A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  35. ^ Ben MacIntyre (2005-09-24). "The American banned list reveals a society with serious hang-ups". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,923-1792974,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  36. ^ a b Helen Frangedis (November 1988). "Dealing with the Controversial Elements in The Catcher in the Rye". The English Journal (The English Journal, Vol. 77, No. 7) 77 (7): 72–75. doi:10.2307/818945. JSTOR 818945. "The foremost allegation made against Catcher is... that it teaches loose moral codes; that it glorifies... drinking, smoking, lying, promiscuity, and more." 
  37. ^ Anna Quindlen (1993-04-07). "Public & Private; The Breast Ban". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7DE123EF934A35757C0A965958260. Retrieved 2007-12-20. ""The Catcher in the Rye" is perennially banned because Holden Caulfield is said to be an unsuitable role model." 
  38. ^ Yilu Zhao (2003-08-31). "Banned, But Not Forgotten". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B06E2DF1438F932A0575BC0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "The Catcher in the Rye, interpreted by some as encouraging rebellion against authority..." 
  39. ^ a b Stephen Whitfield (December 1997). "Cherished and Cursed: Toward a Social History of The Catcher in the Rye". The New England Quarterly (The New England Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 4) 70 (4): 567–600. doi:10.2307/366646. JSTOR 366646. 
  40. ^ Linton Weeks (2000-09-10). "Telling on Dad". Amarillo Globe-News. http://amarillo.com/stories/091000/boo_tellingondad.shtml. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
  41. ^ Aidan Doyle (2003-12-15). "When books kill". Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/books/feature/2003/12/15/books_kill/index1.html. 
  42. ^ Doug Gross (2009-06-03). "Lawsuit targets 'rip-off' of 'Catcher in the Rye'". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/SHOWBIZ/books/06/03/salinger.catcher.lawsuit/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  43. ^ Fogel, Karl. Looks like censorship, smells like censorship... maybe it IS censorship?. QuestionCopyright.org. 2009-07-07.
  44. ^ a b Sutherland, John. How fanfic took over the web London Evening Standard. Retrieved on 2009-07-22.
  45. ^ Fan Fiction and a New Common Law'(1997)Rachel Tushnet, Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal,. vol.17.
  46. ^ Hamilton, Ian (1988). In Search of J. D. Salinger. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-53468-9.  p. 75.
  47. ^ a b Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. ISBN 1-57322-723-4. p. 446.
  48. ^ See Dr. Peter Beidler's A Reader's Companion to J. D. Salinger's the Catcher in the Rye, Chapter 7.
  49. ^ a b Maynard, Joyce (1998). At Home in the World. New York: Picador. p. 93. ISBN 0-312-19556-7.  p. 93.
  50. ^ "News & Features". IFILM: The Internet Movie Guide. 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-09-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20040906/vgn.ifilm.com/db/static_text/0,1699,5784,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  51. ^ Crowe, Cameron, ed. Conversations with Wilder. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. ISBN 0-375-40660-3. p. 299.
  52. ^ a b McAllister, David (2003-11-11). "Will J. D. Salinger sue?". London: The Guardian. http://books.guardian.co.uk/news/articles/0,6109,1082699,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  53. ^ "Inside J. D. Salinger's Own World". The New York Post.. 2003-12-04. p. 6. http://entertainment.myway.com/celebgossip/pgsix/id/12_04_2003_1.html. Retrieved 2007-01-18. [dead link]
  54. ^ Ones that got away, guardian.co.uk Books
  55. ^ "Slim chance of Catcher in the Rye movie — ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/01/29/2805400.htm?section=justin. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  56. ^ Connelly, Sherryl (2010-01-29). "Could 'Catcher in the Rye' finally make it to the big screen? Salinger letter suggests yes". New York: Nydailynews.com. http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/music/2010/01/30/2010-01-30_could_catcher_in_the_rye_finally_make_it_to_the_big_screen_salinger_letter_sugge.html. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 

Bibliography

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