Topic outline of philosophy


Topic outline of philosophy

Philosophy is an ongoing discussion about "knowledge"; it is a broad field of inquiry in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, spans the nature of the universe and human nature (of the mind and the body), the relationships between these, and between people. It explores what and how people come to know, including existence itself, and how that knowledge is reliably and usefully represented, and communicated between and among humans, whether in thought, by language, or with mathematics. Philosophy is the predecessor and complement of science, and its foundation. It develops notions about the issues which underly science, and ponders the nature of thought itself. In science, the scientific method, which involves repeated observations of the results of controlled experiments, is an available and highly successful philosophical methodology. Within fields of study that are concerned directly with humans (economics, psychology, sociology and so forth), in which experimental methodologies are not generally available, subdisciplines of philosophy may be developed to provide a rational basis of study in the respective fields.

The following topic outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to the extensive field of philosophy.

Essence of philosophy

: "Main article: Philosophy"

* Inquiry
* Knowledge
* Meaning of life
* Reasoning
* Truth
* Wisdom

Subdivisions of philosophy

Branches of philosophy

* Aesthetics - the study of beauty, judgments of sentiment, or taste. Aesthetics is closely associated with the philosophy of art.
* Epistemology - studies the nature and scope of knowledge and belief.
* Ethics - study of the right, the good, and the valuable. Includes study of applied ethics.
* Logic - is the study of good reasoning, by examining the validity of arguments and documenting their fallacies.
* Metaphysics - studies the state of being and the nature of reality.

Areas or subdisciplines of philosophy

* Ethics
** Applied ethics
** Bioethics
** Business ethics
** Environmental ethics
** More...
* Philosophy of language
* Philosophy of mind
* Philosophy of philosophy (meta-philosophy)
* Philosophy of religion
* Philosophy of science
** Philosophy of mathematics
** Philosophy of physics
** Philosophy of biology
** Philosophy of psychology
* Social philosophy
** Ethnophilosophy
** Philosophy of education
** Philosophy of history
** Philosophy of social sciences
** Political philosophy
*** Philosophy of law

Philosophical movements

Philosophical movements of the ancient world

* Platonic realism
* Aristotelianism
* Pythagoreanism
* Pyrrhonian skepticism
* Epicureanism (hedonism)
* Stoicism
* Cynicism
* Neoplatonism

Philosophical movements of the modern world

* Analytic Philosophy
* Continental Philosophy
* Deconstructionism (See also deconstructivism).
* Empiricism
* Existentialism
* German idealism
* Logicism
* Logical Positivism
* Marxism
* Modernism (more a movement in the arts, but worth noting for its connection with postmodernism)
* Objectivism
* Phenomenology
* Postmodernism
* Poststructuralism
* Pragmatism
* Rationalism
* Structuralism
* Utilitarianism
* Post Philosophy

Major doctrines, principles, and theories of philosophy

Metaphysics:atheism:atomism:determinism:essentialism:existentialism:externalism:fideism:foundationalism:idealism:materialism:mysticism:naturalism:nihilism:monism:monotheism:objectivism (metaphysics):panentheism:pantheism:physicalism:polytheism:realism:reductionism:relativism:solipsism:subjectivism:taoism:theism:theology:transcendentalism

Epistemology, logic, & philosophy of mind:absolute knowledge:agnosticism:functionalism (philosophy of mind):formalism:dualism:dogmatism:empiricism:conceptualism:constructivism:deconstructionism:intuitionism:internalism:instrumentalism:logical positivism:logicism:mentalism:nominalism:non-cognitivism:perspectivism:phenomenalism:pluralism:positivism (related: logical empiricism; logical positivism):pragmatism:probability:psychologism:rationalism:representationalism:scholasticism:scientism:skepticism:vitalism:voluntarism

Ethics, social & political philosophy:altruism:anarchism:anthropomorphism:asceticism:behaviorism:Buddhism:capitalism:communitarianism:Confucianism:consequentialism:deontology:dialectical materialism:egalitarianism:egoism:emotivism:ethical relativism:eudaimonia:evolutionary theory:expression theory of art:feminist theory:historicism:holism:humanism:individualism:intellectualism:legal positivism:liberalism:libertarianism:modernism:moral absolutism:moral relativism:moral universalism:post modernism:sophism:stoicism:totalitarianism:utilitarianism:Zoroastrianism

Philosophy by region/era

* African philosophy
* African American philosophy
* Eastern philosophy
** Buddhist philosophy
** Chinese philosophy
** Confucian philosophy
** Hindu philosophy
** Indian philosophy
** Indonesian philosophy
** Iranian philosophy
** Islamic philosophy
** Japanese philosophy
** Jain philosophy
** Taoist philosophy
* Western philosophy
** Analytic philosophy
** Christian philosophy
** Continental philosophy
** Critical theory
** Czech philosophy
** Danish philosophy
** French philosophy
** German philosophy
** Greek philosophy
** Jewish philosophy
** Medieval philosophy
** Polish philosophy
** Postmodern philosophy
** Roman philosophy
** Romanian philosophy
** Russian philosophy

History of philosophy

: "Main article: History of philosophy"

* Ancient philosophy
** Greek philosophy
* Medieval philosophy
* Renaissance philosophy
* Age of Reason
* Age of Enlightenment
* 19th-century philosophy ("Modern")
* Contemporary philosophy
* History of eastern philosophy
* History of logic
* History of political philosophy
* History of western philosophy
* Timeline of philosophers

Fundamental philosophical questions

* What is the meaning of life?
* Do we even exist?
* Does God exist?
* Do we have free will?
* Do we have a soul?
* How can we know when something is true?
* How is a priori knowledge possible?
* The problem of universals.
* What is beauty?
* What is consciousness?
* What is freedom?
* What is good? What is evil?
* What is just?
* What is real?
* What is valuable?
* What are time and space?

"See also: Unsolved problems in philosophy"

Basic philosophical concepts

: "Below are basic terms of philosophy which are not covered above:"

Western philosophical concepts

General

deconstruction
dialectic
freethought
know thyself
life stance
meaning of life
perennial philosophy
philosopher
philosophy and literature
pragmatics
rationality
reason (practical, speculative, and theoretical) –
semantics
semiotics –"The Republic (Plato)" –
rhetoric
Thus Spoke Zarathustra
universals (problem of)
The Urantia Book
Vienna Circle
Weltanschauung
wisdom
women in philosophy
world view
Young Hegelians
Zeitgeist

Aesthetics

Epistemology

A priori
A posteriori
belief
certainty
Five Ws
hypothesis
internalism and externalism
justification –
justified true belief
knowledge
prejudice
scientific method
truth
uncertainty
verification

Ethics

action
action theory
bioethics
business ethics
eudaimonia
evil
descriptive ethics
freedom of religion
genethics
good –
happiness –the "Happy Human" –
environmental ethics
human flourishing
euthanasia
freedom
human rights
intolerance
justice
justification of human rights –
medical ethics
morality
norm
normative ethics
original position
personal value
quality of life
social contract
suffering
Symposium (by Plato) –
tolerance
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
value theory
values
veil of ignorance
vice
violence
virtue
virtue ethics
virtue theory
voluntary euthanasia
war and philosophy
weakness of will
Welfare
welfare economics
well-being
wrong

Logic

abduction –
ambiguity
analogy
argument
argument, logical –
axiom
deduction
fallacy
induction –
inference
non-contradiction, law of –
reason
validity
Venn diagram
voting paradox
well-formed formula

Fallacies

* formal fallacy, examples:
** affirming a disjunct
** false dilemma

* informal fallacy, examples:
** begging the question
** false analogy

Metaphysics

awareness
being
categories of the understanding
causality
Cogito, ergo sum
consciousness
cosmology
cosmogony
Creation myth -
Dasein
essence
evolution
existence
free will
human nature
irreligion
I think, therefore I am –
nature
noumenon
object
ontology
creation myths –
perception
perception, philosophy of
rational choice theory -
reality
religion
self
sense data
spirituality
subject
substance
tabula rasa
thing in itself
understanding, categories of the
universal
veil of perception
volition
will
will to power –
Zeno's paradoxes

Eastern philosophical concepts

Wheel of life
yang
yin
yin and yang
Yoga
zen

Philosophers

* Timeline of Western philosophers
* Timeline of Eastern philosophers

Analytics

* A.J. Ayer
* Avrum Stroll
* Bertrand Russell
* C.D. Broad
* Carl Hempel
* George Edward Moore
* Gilbert Ryle
* Gottlob Frege
* H.P. Grice
* J.L. Austin
* John Wisdom
* Ludwig Wittgenstein
* P.F. Strawson
* Rudolf Carnap
* W. V. O. Quine

Classical philosophers

* Aristotle
* Plato
* Socrates

Deconstructionists

* Jacques Derrida

Eastern philosophers

* Confucius
* Laozi

Empiricists

* Aristotle
* Thomas Aquinas
* Roger Bacon
* Francis Bacon
* George Berkeley
* Thomas Hobbes
* David Hume
* John Locke
* John Stuart Mill

Existentialists

* Albert Camus
* Fyodor Dostoevsky
* Martin Heidegger
* Soren Kierkegaard
* Friedrich Nietzsche
* Jean-Paul Sartre

German idealists

* Kant
* Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Logical positivists

* Rudolf Carnap
* Berlin Circle
* Vienna Circle
* Carl Hempel
* Ernest Nagel
* Hans Reichenbach
* Moritz Schlick

Pessimists

* Arthur Schopenhauer

Phenomenologists

* Martin Heidegger
* Edmund Husserl

Joesph Niedymeyer

Political philosophers

* Thomas Hobbes
* Karl Marx
* Jean-Jacques Rousseau
* Voltaire

Pragmatists

* John Dewey
* William James
* George Herbert Mead
* Charles Sanders Peirce
* W.V.O. Quine

Rationalists

* René Descartes
* Gottfried Leibniz
* Nicolas Malebranche
* Benedictus de Spinoza

Structuralists

* Michel Foucault

Utilitarians

* Jeremy Bentham
* Henry Sidgwick
* John Stuart Mill

Philosophy lists

: "Main lists: Lists of philosophy topics and List of philosophy topics (index)"

* Glossary of philosophical isms
* List of belief systems
* List of ethics topics
* List of topics in logic
* List of topics in aesthetics
* List of topics in social and political philosophy
* List of topics in epistemology
* List of topics in anarchism
* List of topics in Ancient philosophy
* List of philosophy journals
* List of philosophies
* Lists of philosophers

See also

* Irreligion
* Life stance
* Religion
* Science
* World view

Books

Following are some introductory works about major philosophical issues:
* Blackwell Companion to Philosophy
* A History of Western Philosophy, by Bertrand Russell
* A History of Philosophy, by Frederick Copleston

External links

* [http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/index.htm Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
* [http://www.epistemelinks.org/ EpistemeLinks: Philosophy Resources on the Internet]
* [http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/gpi/index.htm Guide to Philosophy on the Internet]
* [http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/ The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
* [http://www.ismbook.com/ The Ism Book]
* [http://www.galilean-library.org/philosophy.html Introducing Philosophy Series. By Paul Newall (for beginners)]
* [http://www.db.dk/jni/lifeboat/Concepts/Position.htm Philosophical positions] (philosophy, movement, school, theory, etc.)
* The Problems of Philosophy, by Bertrand Russell (links provided to full text)
* [http://plato.stanford.edu/ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]


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