- Whyalla, South Australia
Infobox Australian Place | type = city
name = Whyalla
state = South Australia
caption = Location of Whyalla in South Australia (red
City of Whyalla
postcode = 5600 [ [http://www1.auspost.com.au/postcodes/index.asp?Locality=Whyalla&sub=1&State=SA&Postcode=&submit1=Search Australia Post] - Postcode: Whyalla, SA (
25 June 2008)]
pop = 21,122
pop_footnotes = "(2006 census)"
est = 1920
utc = +9:30
utc-dst = +10:30
stategov = Giles
fedgov = Grey
dist1 = 395
location1 = Adelaide
Whyalla is the third most populous
cityin South Australiaafter Adelaideand Mount Gambier. It is a seaportlocated on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsulain South Australia.
Although Whyalla is the largest city on the
Eyre Peninsulafew tourists visit because of the pollution that glooms over the city. When driving into the city an orange cloud can be seen over the city and any white house will be covered with orange dust after one week. When the pollution of the city is mentioned, the town council replies with the cities trademark slogan "If you don't like the dust, leave ©"
It was founded as Hummock's Hill in 1901 by the Broken Hill Proprietary Company (BHP) as the end of a tramway bringing
iron orefrom the Middleback Ranges to be used in the lead smelters at Port Pirie as flux. A jetty was built to transfer the ore. The settlement consisted of small cottages and tents clustered around the base of the hill. The Post Office opened in 1901 as Hummock's Hill and was renamed Whyalla on November 1, 1919.Citation
last = Premier Postal History | title = Post Office List | url = https://www.premierpostal.com/cgi-bin/wsProd.sh/Viewpocdwrapper.p?SortBy=sa&country= | accessdate = 2008-04-11 ]
The arid environment and lack of natural fresh water resources made it necessary to import water in barges from Port Pirie.
In 1905 the town's first school opened. It was originally called Hummock Hill School, and was subsequently renamed as Whyalla Primary School and Whyalla Higher Primary School. The school's current name is Whyalla Town Primary School.
16 April 1920the town was proclaimed as Whyalla. The ore conveyor on the jetty was improved and ore began to be shipped to the newly built Newcastle, New South Walessteelworks. The town grew slowly until 1938.
The BHP Indenture Act was proclaimed in 1937 and provided the impetus for the construction of a
blast furnaceand harbour. In 1939 the blast furnace and harbour began to be constructed and a commitment for a pipeline from the Murray Riverwas made. A shipyardwas built to provide ships for the Royal Australian Navy. The population began rising dramatically and many new facilities, including a hospital and abbatoirs, were built.
In 1941 the first ship from the new shipyard, HMAS "Whyalla", was launched and the blast furnace became operational. By 1943 the population was more than 5,000. On
31 March 1943the Murray Riverpipeline from Morgan became operational. In 1945 the city came under combined company and public administration and the shipyard began producing commercial ships. In 1948 displaced persons began arriving from Europe.
In 1958 the Company decided to build an integrated steelworks at Whyalla. They were completed in 1965. In the following year salt began to be harvested and coke ovens were built. The population grew extremely rapidly, and the
South Australian Housing Trustwas building 500 houses a year to cope with the demand. Plans for a city of 100,000 were produced by the Department of Lands. A second pipeline from Morgan was built to cope with the demand.In 1970 the city adopted full local government status. Fierce competition from Japanese ship builders resulted in the closing of the shipyards in 1978, which were at the time the largest in Australia. From a peak population of 33,000 in 1976 the population dropped rapidly. A decline in the BHP iron and steel industry since 1981 also impacted employment.
From 2004 northern South Australia enjoyed a mining boom and Whyalla found itself well placed to benefit from new ventures, being situated on the edge of the
Gawler Craton. The city experienced an economic upturn with the population slowly increasing and the unemployment rate falling to a more typical level.
In late 2006 the Whyalla City Council began planning for a new industrial estate close to the One Steel Whyalla plant.
According to the 2006 Census the population of the Whyalla census area was 21,122 people, making it the second largest urban area in the state outside of Adelaide. Approximately 50.6% of the population were male, 73% are Australian born, over 86.3% of residents are Australian citizens and only 3.6% were native born indigenous people. The most popular industries for employment were Metal Manufacturing (17.9%), School Education (5.8%) and Health (4.8%), while the unemployment rate is approx. 8.9%. The median weekly household income is AUD$744 or more per week, compared with $924 in Adelaide. 19.7% of the population identify themselves as
Catholic, while a higher 29.8% identify with no religion at all. [Census 2006 AUS | id = UCL428400 | name = Whyalla (Urban Centre/Locality) | quick = on | accessdate=2008-06-25]
2007 population estimates have Whyalla's population at 22,612 people, an increase of 1.3% on the previous year. This constitutes the citys largest growth since 1974-75. [ [http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3218.0Main%20Features82006-07?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3218.0&issue=2006-07&num=&view= Australian Bureau of Statistics] - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2006-07 - South Australia (
28 July 2008)]
narrow gaugeso-called tramway was built to Iron Knobto supply iron ore originally used as flux when smelting copper ore. This ore became the basis of the steelworks. As the Iron Knob deposits were worked out, the railway was diverted to other sources of ore at Iron Monarch, Iron Prince, Iron Dukeand Iron Baron.
To enable interchange between the BHP's other steelworks in Newcastle and
Port Kemblaof specialised rollingstock, the railway system within the Whyalla steelworks was converted to standard gaugecirca 1963 [Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, September, 1963 pp133-136] .
Although the steelworks produced railway rail, for several decades there was no railway connection to the mainland system. Finally in 1972, a
standard gaugelink to Port Augustawas completed.
Some iron ore is exported from Whyalla. In 2007, steps were being taken to export iron ore from Peculiar Knob, 600km away.
Whyalla is served by
Whyalla Airport, with Regional Express flying into Whyalla from Adelaide a number of times a day. On May 31, 2000, Whyalla Airlines [http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/01/28/1043534057190.html Flight 904] (registration VH-MZK) crashed into the Spencer Gulf due to engine failure in mid flight. All 8 people on board (1 Pilot, 7 Passengers) died.
The HMAS "Whyalla" was a World War 2 corvette. It was the first ship built in the city of Whyalla and was named after the city. The ship was landlocked as a tourist attraction in 1987, the main attraction of the Whyalla Maritime Museum.
In the late 1990s the spectacular annual migration of the
Australian Giant Cuttlefish"Sepia apama" to the reef areas north of Whyalla around Black Point and Point Lowly became recognised by international divers. It has also come to the attention of divers of Whyalla, that the same area in which the cuttlefish breed is, just a few months later, the place of congregation for squid, which also come there to breed. This has only come to the attention of locals in 2005. There are also dolphins that frequent the local marina.
The Whyalla Conservation Park provides an example of the natural semi-arid environment.
The Hummock Hill lookout provides excellent views across the town, the port and the coast.
tate & Federal
Whyalla is part of the state
electoral district of Giles, which has been held since 1997 by Labor MP Lyn Breuer. The seat is held by a margin of 14.4%. In federal politics, the city is part of the division of Grey, and has been represented by Liberal MP Rowan Ramseysince 2007. Barker is held with a margin of 8.86% and is considered safe-liberal. The results shown are from the largest polling station in Whyalla Norrie — which is located at Nicholson Avenue Primary School.
Whyalla is in the
City of Whyallalocal government area (along with some of the sparsely inhabited areas around it).
Primary schools in Whyalla include Whyalla Town Primary School, Fisk Street Primary School, Long Street Primary School, Hinks Avenue Primary School, Memorial Oval Primary School, Whyalla Stuart Primary School, and Nicolson Avenue Primary School. Of these Nicolson Avenue (the school formally known as Whyalla West Primary) is the largest, with over 500 students from reception to year 7, and Whyalla Stuart Primary School (the school formally known as Scott Street Primary) is the smallest, with under 90 students. Most other schools have between 150 and 300 students.
There is also the Whyalla Christian School (a ministry of the Whyalla
Assembly of Godchurch) and two Catholicschools - St Teresa's and Our Lady Help of Christians. In March 2007 it was announced that these two schools would be merging with St John's College to form a new R-12 school. This school, known as Samaritan College, began operating in 2008, initially remaining on three campuses.
Public educationis provided through the Whyalla Secondary College, which is a loose affiliation of the three government High Schools. The Whyalla Secondary College is composed of Stuart High School, Whyalla High Schooland Edward John Eyre High School. Stuart High and Whyalla High provide Years 8 to 10, before students complete their SACE at Edward John EyreHigh. Edward John Eyre High School celebrates 40 years of operation in 2008. Private educationis provided by Saint John's College, Whyalla, a Catholic secondary school established 17th March 1963 by the Christian Brothers. As of 2008, Saint John's College became one campus of Samaritan College.
Tertiary education is provided by the Spencer Institute of TAFE, and the Whyalla Campus of the
University of South Australia.
Whyalla has two sister cities, according to the [http://www.asca.asn.au/index.html Australian Sister Cities Association] .
*flagicon|United States Texas City,
Notable people from Whyalla
Robert Shirley- Australian Football(AFL) player. Isaac Weetra- Australian Football(AFL) player. Carl Veart- Former Australian soccerplayer. Robert Bajic- Australian soccerplayer.
* [http://www.whyalla.com/site/page.cfm Whyalla City Council's tourist information site]
* [http://terraserver.com/imagery/image_gx.asp?cpx=137.563035400318&cpy=-33.0308972838673&res=25&provider_id=340&t=pan Terraserver.com satellite image of Whyalla]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=-33.030897,137.563035&spn=0.092287,0.158512&t=k&hl=en maps.google.com satellite image of Whyalla]
* [http://www.bom.gov.au/products/IDS60801/IDS60801.95664.shtml Whyalla's Weather for the last 72 hours]
* [http://www.ejehs.sa.edu.au Edward John Eyre High School]
* [http://www.stjohns.pp.catholic.edu.au Saint Johns College]
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