name = Szczecin
nickname = Floating Garden
motto = "Szczecin jest otwarty" ("Szczecin is open")
imagesize = 250px
Oder Riverin Szczecin
image_shield = POL Szczecin COA.svg
pushpin_label_position = bottom
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = POL
subdivision_type1 = Voivodeship
subdivision_name1 = West Pomeranian
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = "city county"
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Piotr Krzystek
established_title = Established
established_date = 8th century
established_title3 = Town rights
established_date3 = 1243
area_total_km2 = 301
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 407811
population_density_km2 = auto
population_metro = 777000
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd = 53 | latm = 25 | lats = | latNS = N | longd = 14 | longm = 35 | longs = | longEW = E
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = PL-70-017
area_code = +48 91
website = http://www.szczecin.pl
blank_name = Car plates
blank_info = ZS
Szczecin Audio-IPA-pl|Szczecin.ogg|'|sz|cz|e|ć|i|n ( _de. Stettin IPA| [Help:IPA| [ʃtɛˈtin] Audlisten|Stettin.ogg; _cs. Sztetëno IPA| [Help:IPA| [ʂtɛˈtənɔ] ; _la. Stetinum) is the capital city of
West Pomeranian Voivodeshipin Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of the 2005 censusthe city had a total population of 420,638, but in 2007 407,811.
Szczecin is located on the
Oder River, south of the Lagoon of Szczecinand the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of Oder and on several large islands between western and eastern branch of the river. Szczecin borders with Police - a district town situated at an estuaryof the Oder River.
The city is on the
European Route of Brick Gothic.
Origins of the name
The most likely origin of the name is considered to be the Polish words Szczyt or Szczeć-the first being the name of a hill peak, the second being a description of grass [http://slowniki.pwn.pl/poradnia/lista.php?kat=7&od=40] . In Latin, the city is known as "Stetinum". Early medieval sources show: "Stetin" 1133, "Stetyn" 1188, "Priznoborus vir nobilis in Stetin, Symon nobilis Stettinensis" 1234, "in vico Stetin" 1240, "Barnim Dei gratia dux Pomeranorum... civitati nostri Stetin" 1243, "Stityn" 1251, "Sigillum Burgoncium de Stitin" municipal seal of the 13th century.
Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania founded the city of "Neustettin" (literally "New Stettin", now " Szczecinek") in 1310, the original Szczecin was sometimes called "Old Szczecin" ( _pl. Stary Szczecin; _de. Altes Stettin).
Historical and cultural milieu of the city spanning a thousand years [AIESEC, [http://www.szczecin.aiesec.pl/Default.aspx?tabid=5770 History of Szczecin] ] have been shared by more than one nationality. [Akademickie Centrum Informatyki, [http://www.szn.pl/historia/history.html The history of Szczecin,] 1997] The history of Szczecin began at the turn of the 7th and 8th centuries with a Slavic settlementSzczecin City Hall, Municipal Government Office, [http://www.szczecin.pl/inwestor/uk/1_uk/uk_1_1.htm A little bit about the history of the City,] Szczecin 2002.] on today's Castle Hill growing into a fortified borough in the 8th century at the ford of
Oder River. Prince Mieszko I of Polandtook control over the region in the years 967–972. Around 1005 a Pomeranian pagan rebellion took place. In approximately 1080 the area was again incorporated into the holdings of Piast dynasty.
After the decline of Wolin in the 12th century, Szczecin became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea south coasts, with population of some 5,000 inhabitants. In 1121–1122 the city came under the influence of
Boleslaus III of Polandwho invited the Catholic bishop Otto of Bambergto baptize its citizens. The Christianizationmission was carried out in 1124. This second period of Polish feudal sovereignty over the Western Pomerania and Szczecin lasted 60 years (1121-1181). Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania is recorded to be the local duke. Wartislaw managed to expand his duchy westward, thereby forming the territorial body of the later Duchy of Pomerania, and organized the second visit of Otto in 1128. At this time the first Christian church of St. Peter and Paul was erected. The duchy was for the centuries being ruled by the "Griffins" dynasty ( House of Pomerania), of which Wartislaw I is the first definite ancestor. Stettin was made the capital of the duchy and did not lose this status even during the partitions of Pomerania, when Pomerania-Stettin comprised large portions of the duchy and always was seat of Pomeranian dukes. As a result, Stettin was chosen to stay capital even in the Prussian Province of Pomeraniaset up after the 1637 death of the last Pomeranian duke. see|Dukes of Pomerania
In the second half of the 12th century, a group of German tradesmen (from various parts of the
Holy Roman Empire) settled in the city around St. Jacob's Church, which was founded by Beringer, a trader from Bamberg, and consecrated in 1187. After the 1164 Verchen battle, Stettin dukes joined in to Saxony and in 1181 Stettin became part of the Holy Roman Empire. For centuries the dukes invited West and Central German settlers to colonize Pomeranian wastelands and to found towns and villages ("see Ostsiedlung"). Duke Barnim of Pomerania granted a local government charter to this community in 1237, separating the Germans from the Slavic majority community settled around the St. Nicholas Church (in the neighborhoods of Chyzin, Uber-Wiken, and Unter-Wiken). Barnim granted Stettin Magdeburg rightsin 1243. Around that time the major ethnic group of the city had become German, while the Slavic population decreased.
Stettin joined the
Hanseatic Leaguein 1278. By the 1630s the city and surrounding area that hadn't been already German had become completely Germanized.
After the extinction of the Griffits dynasty, Stettin, along with the rest of Western Pomerania, was granted to Sweden at the
Peace of Westphalia(1648), despite the protests of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg, who had a legal claim to inherit all of Pomerania. In 1720 after the Great Northern War, the Swedes were forced to cede the city to King Frederick William I of Prussia. Stettin developed into a major Prussian city and became part of the Prussian-led German Empirein 1871. In 1939 Stettin had about 400,000 inhabitants. It was Germany's third-biggest seaport (after Hamburgand Bremen) and was of great importance for the supply and trade of Berlin. Cars of the Stoewerautomobile company were produced in Stettin from 1899 - 1945.
In 1935 the German
Wehrmachtmade Stettin the headquarters for Wehrkreis II, which controlled the military units in all of Mecklenburgand Pomerania. It was also the Area Headquarters for units stationed at Stettin I and II; Swinemünde; Greifswald; and Stralsund. During the 1939 invasion of Poland, which started World War II in Europe, Stettin was the base for the German 2nd Motorized Infantry Division, which cut across the Polish Corridor. Allied air raids in 1944 and heavy fighting between the German and Soviet armies destroyed 65% of Stettin's buildings and almost all of the city centre, seaport and industries.
Red Armycaptured the city on April 26, 1945. Many of the city's inhabitants fled before its capture, and Stettin was virtually deserted when it fell. In the following month the city was handed over to Polish administration three times, permanently on July 5, 1945. In the meantime part of the German population had returned, believing it might become part of the Soviet occupation zone in Germany. Stettin is located mostly west of the Oder-Neisse line, which was to be Poland's new border according to the Potsdam Conference. However, most of Pomerania, including all of Stettin and the mouth of the Oder River, was awarded to Poland.
The Polish authorities were led by Piotr Zaremba. Many of the remaining Germans were forced to work in Soviet military camps that were outside of Polish jurisdiction. In the early 1950s, most of Stettin's Germans were expelled from the city, although there was a significant German minority for the next 10 years.
In 1945 the Polish community in Stettin consisted of a few citizens from the pre-war population as well as forced laborers from the
General government. The city's German population was expelled and Stettin was resettled with Poles, many of whom came from around Poznańand Bydgoszcz, where their homes had been destroyed under the German occupation and the fighting during the East Prussian Offensive. Additional Poles were moved to the city from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. This settlement process was coordinated by the city of Poznań, and Stettin's name was changed to the Polish name Szczecin. In 1947, after Operation Vistula, a significant number of Ukrainians came to Szczecin, having been forced by the Communist government to leave eastern Poland.
The new citizens of Szczecin rebuilt and extended the city's industry and industrial areas, as well as its cultural heritage, although efforts were hampered by the authorities of Communist Poland. Szczecin became a major industrial centre for Poland, as well as an important seaport for Poland (especially for
Silesian coal), Czechoslovakia, and East Germany. The city witnessed anti-communist revolts in 1970 and 1980 and participated in the growth of the Solidaritymovement during the 1980s. Since 1999 Szczecin has been the capital of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Architecture and urban planning
Szczecin's architectural style is mainly influenced by those of the last half of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century:
Academic artand Art Nouveau. In many areas built after 1945, especially in the city centre, which had been destroyed due to Allied bombing, social realismis prevalent.
Urban planning of Szczecin is unusual. The first thing observed by a newcomer is abundance of green areas:
parks and avenues – wide streets with trees planted in the island separating opposite traffic (where often tramtracks are laid); and roundabouts. This makes Szczecin's city project quite similar to that of Paris. The reason is, Szczecin (like Paris) was rebuilt in the 1880s using a design by Georges-Eugène Haussmann.
This course of designing streets in Szczecin is still used, as many recently built (or modified) city areas include roundabouts and avenues.
Within Szczecin's boundaries is part of the
protected areacalled Szczecin Landscape Parkin the forest of Puszcza Bukowa.
Look at other dictionaries:
Szczecin — Bandera … Wikipedia Español
SZCZECIN — SZCZECI À quelque 60 kilomètres de la Baltique, au fond de sa lagune (Zalew Szczeci ski), Szczecin (en allemand: Stettin) bénéficie d’un contexte portuaire exceptionnel. Port d’estuaire en eau profonde, il est bien abrité par les îles d’Uznam et… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Szczecin — [shche tsēn′] river port in NW Poland, on the Oder: pop. 419,000 … English World dictionary
Szczecin — « Stettin » redirige ici. Pour le brise glace allemand, voir Stettin (brise glace). Szczecin (Pologne) … Wikipédia en Français
Szczecin — Stettin … Deutsch Wikipedia
Szczecin — /shche cheen/, n. a seaport in NW Poland: formerly in Germany. 370,000. German, Stettin. * * * German Stettin Seaport (pop., 2000 est.: 416,500), near the mouth of the Oder River, northwestern Poland. A Slavic fishing and commercial centre for… … Universalium
szczecin — ˈshchetsēn adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Szczecin, Poland : of or from the city of Szczecin, Poland : of the kind or style prevalent in Szczecin … Useful english dictionary
Szczecin — (al. Stettin) ► Voivodato del NO de Polonia, en la Pomerania, junto al Báltico (N) y Alemania (O); 9 981 km2 y 972 100 h. Cap., la c. homónima (413 400 h), puerto comercial y de pasajeros. * * * alemán Stettin Puerto marítimo (pob., est. 2000:… … Enciclopedia Universal
Szczecin — Original name in latin Szczecin Name in other language Estetino, Estettin, Gorad Shchehcin, SZZ, Scecin, Scecina, Scecinas, Scetsin, Shchechin, Shchecin, Shchekin, Shchetsin, Shchtsin, Shhechin, Shhecin, Stetin, Stettin, Stettino, Stettinum,… … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Szczecin — Szcze|cin [ ʃt̮ʃɛt̮ʃin ]: poln. Name von ↑ Stettin. * * * Szczecin [ ʃtʃɛtɕin], Stadt und bis 1998 Woiwodschaft in Polen, Stettin. * * * Szcze|cin [ ʃtʃɛtʃi:n]: poln. Name von ↑Stettin … Universal-Lexikon