- Intentional community
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to have a much higher degree of teamwork than other communities. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, political, religious, or spiritual vision and often follow an alternative lifestyle. They typically also share responsibilities and resources. Intentional communities include cohousing communities, ecovillages, communes, survivalist retreats, kibbutzim, ashrams and some housing cooperatives. Typically, new members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real-estate agents or land owners (if the land is not owned collectively by the community).
Within intentional communities the above terms have different meanings compared to the legal forms of real estate ownership that may have the same name.
The purposes of intentional communities vary. They may include sharing resources, creating family-oriented neighborhoods and living ecologically sustainable lifestyles (ecovillages). Many intentional communities focus on the importance of living and sharing life together, as opposed to the perceived trend of independence in Western culture.
Types of communities
Some communities are secular; others have a spiritual basis. One common practice, particularly in spiritual communities, is communal meals. Commonly there is a focus on egalitarian values. Other themes are voluntary simplicity, interpersonal growth, and self-sufficiency.
Some communities provide services to disadvantaged populations, for example, war refugees, the homeless, or people with developmental disabilities. Some communities operate learning or health centers. Other communities, such as Castanea of Nashville, TN, offer a safe neighborhood for those exiting rehab programs to live in. Some communities also act as a mixed-income neighborhood, so as to alleviate the damages of one demographic assigned to one area. Many intentional communities attempt to alleviate social injustices that are being practiced within the area of residence.
Types of memberships
Many communities have different types or levels of membership. Typically, intentional communities have a selection process which starts with someone interested in the community coming for a visit. Often prospective community members are interviewed by a selection committee of the community or in some cases by everyone in the community. Many communities have a "provisional membership" period. After a visitor has been accepted, a new member is "provisional" until they have stayed for some period (often six months or a year) and then the community re-evaluates their membership. Generally, after the provisional member has been accepted, they become a full member. In many communities, the voting privileges and/or community benefits for provisional members are less than those for full members.
Christian intentional communities are usually composed of those wanting to emulate the practices of the earliest believers. Using the biblical book of Acts (and, often, the Sermon on the Mount) as a model, members of these communities strive for a practical outworking of their individual faith in a corporate context. These Christian intentional communities attempt to live out the teachings of the New Testament and practice lives of compassion and hospitality.
A survey in the 1995 edition of the Communities Directory, published by Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC), reported that 54% of the communities choosing to list themselves were rural, 28% were urban, 10% had both rural and urban sites, and 8% did not specify.
Type of governance
The most common form of governance in intentional communities is democratic (64%), with decisions made by some form of consensus decision-making or voting. Of the remainder, 9% have a hierarchical or authoritarian structure, 11% are a combination of democratic and hierarchical structure, and 16% do not specify. Many communities which were initially led by an individual or small group have changed in recent years to a more democratic form of governance.
- Co-operative living arrangements
- Communities magazine
- Diggers and Dreamers
- Drop City
- Egalitarian communities
- Fellowship for Intentional Community
- List of intentional communities
- Focolare´s Mariapolis
- New Monasticism
- Retreat (survivalism)
- Walden Two
- Christian, D. (2003) Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-471-1
- Curl, John (2007) Memories of Drop City, the First Hippie Commune of the 1960s and the Summer of Love: a memoir. iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-42343-4. http://red-coral.net/DropCityIndex.html
- Kanter, Rosabeth Moss (1972) Commitment and Community: communes and utopias in sociological perspective. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-67414-575-5
- McLaughlin, C. and Davidson, G. (1990) Builders of the Dawn: community lifestyles in a changing world. Book Publishing Company. ISBN 0-913990-68-X
- Lupton, Robert C. (1997) "Return Flight: Community Development Through Reneighboring our Cities". Atlanta, GA.: FCS Urban Ministries.
- Intentional community at the Open Directory Project
- Intentional Communities Database
- Intentional Communities website
- Intentional Communities Wiki
- Diggers & Dreamers UK directory & Journal
- The Twitter Age Embraces Communal Living – slideshow by The New York Times
Cooperatives and Mutual organizations Types of
cooperativesBy governanceBy purposeMutual educationHealth insurance cooperativeFood cooperative · Recycling cooperative
Identity Political and
Key theorists History and
geographyUkraine · United Kingdom · United States
Organizations See also
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fellowship for Intentional Community — The Fellowship for Intentional Community nurtures connections and cooperation among communitarians and their friends. It provide publications, referrals, support services, and sharing opportunities for a wide range of intentional communities,… … Wikipedia
Commune (intentional community) — A commune is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, property, possessions, resources, work and income. In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision making, non hierarchical structures and… … Wikipedia
Intentional living — is a term used in a variety of contexts including religious, ethical and values oriented contexts as well as coaching, personal transformation, and leadership training practices and programs. In this sense, “intentional” is defined as “done with… … Wikipedia
Community — For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). A community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice. The term community has two distinct meanings: a group of interacting people, possibly living in close proximity, and… … Wikipedia
Community land trust — A community land trust is a nonprofit corporation which acquires and manages land on behalf of the residents of a place based community, while preserving affordability and preventing foreclosures for any housing located upon its land. Contents 1… … Wikipedia
Community association — A community association is a nongovernmental association of participating members of a community, such as a neighborhood, village, condominium, cooperative, or group of homeowners or property owners in a delineated geographic area. Participation… … Wikipedia
Community (disambiguation) — For the Wikipedia community, see Wikipedia:Community Portal A community is a group of interacting organisms sharing an environment. Community may also refer to: Community (TV series) Community (ecology), a collection of populations of different… … Wikipedia
Community development — (CD) is a broad term applied to the practices and academic disciplines of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of local communities. Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups … Wikipedia
Community psychology — Part of the series on Community Concepts Sense of community Social capital … Wikipedia
Community settlement (Israel) — A community settlement (Hebrew: יישוב קהילתי, Yishuv Kehilati) is a type of town in Israel. While in an ordinary town anyone may buy property, in a community settlement the town s residents, who are organized in a cooperative, can veto a sale of … Wikipedia