Rochdale Principles


Rochdale Principles

The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. They were first set out by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in Rochdale, England, in 1844, and have formed the basis for the principles on which co-operatives around the world operate to this day. The implications of the Rochdale Principles are a focus of study in co-operative economics. The original Rochdale Principles were officially adopted by the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) in 1937 as the Rochdale Principles of Co-operation. Updated versions of the principles were adopted by the ICA in 1966 as the Co-operative Principles and in 1995 as part of the Statement on the Co-operative Identity.[1]

The original Toad Lane Store in Rochdale, England

Contents

Current ICA version of co-operative principles

The Rochdale Principles according to the 1995 ICA revision are detailed below.[2]

NOTE: The subcategories listed below are of an editorial nature, in that they are an explanation of the author's understanding of these principles. They are not expounded upon in that much detail in the actual ICA principles. See: http://www.ica.coop/coop/principles.html .

Voluntary and open membership

The first of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, "Co-operatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination."

Anti-discrimination

To discriminate socially is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category. Examples of social discrimination include racial, religious, sexual, sexual orientation, disability, and ethnic discrimination. To fulfil the first Rochdale Principle, a Co-operative society should not prevent anyone willing to participate from doing so on any of these grounds. However, this does not prohibit the co-operative from setting ground rules for membership, such as residing in a specific geographic area or payment of a membership fee to join, so long as all persons meeting such criteria are able to participate if they so choose.

Motivations and rewards

Given the voluntary nature of co-operatives, it requires a motivation to encourage people to participate. Each person's motivations will be unique, and will vary from one co-operative to another, but will often be a combination of the following:

  • Financial - Some co-operatives are able to provide members with financial benefits.
  • Quality of life – serving the community through a co-operative because doing service makes one's own life better - is perhaps the most significant motivation for volunteering. Included here would be the benefits people get from being with other people, staying active, and above all having a sense of the value of ourselves in society that may not be as clear in other areas of life.
  • Giving Back – many people have in some way benefited from the work of a co-operative, or more generally, and volunteer to give back.
  • Altruism – volunteering for the benefit of others.
  • A sense of duty – some see participation in community as a responsibility that comes with citizenship – in this case they may not describe themselves as volunteers
  • Career Experience - Volunteering offers experiences that can add to career prospects.

Democratic member control

The second of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have democratic member control. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote) and co-operatives at other levels are also organised in a democratic manner.”

Member economic participation

Member economic participation is one of the defining features of co-operative societies, and constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity. According to the ICA, co-operatives are enterprises in which “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.” This principle, in turn, can be broken down into a number of constituent parts.

Democratic control

The first part of this principle states that “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative.” This enshrines democratic control over the co-operative, and how its capital is used.

Limitations on member compensation and appropriate use of surpluses

The second part of the principle deals with how members are compensated for funds invested in a Co-operative, and how surpluses should be used. Unlike for profit corporations, co-operatives are a form of social enterprise. Given this, there are at least three purposes for which surplus funds can be used, or distributed, by a Co-operative.

  • “Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership.”
  • “Developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible;” in other words, the surplus can be reinvested in the co-operative.
  • Benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative;” for example, a Consumers' Co-operative may decide to pay dividends based on purchases (or a 'divvi').
  • “Supporting other activities approved by the membership.”

Autonomy and independence

The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autonomy.”

Education, training, and information

The fifth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must provide education and training to their members and the public. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation.”

Cooperation among cooperatives

The sixth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operatives cooperate with each other. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures.”

Concern for community

The seventh of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have concern for their communities. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.”

Previous versions

Original version (adopted 1937)

[1][3]

  1. Open membership.
  2. Democratic control (one person, one vote).
  3. Distribution of surplus in proportion to trade.
  4. Payment of limited interest on capital.
  5. Political and religious neutrality.
  6. Cash trading (no credit extended).
  7. Promotion of education.

ICA revision (1966)

  1. Open, voluntary membership.
  2. Democratic governance.
  3. Limited return on equity.
  4. Surplus belongs to members.
  5. Education of members and public in cooperative principles.
  6. Cooperation between cooperatives.
  7. Concern for community

See also

References

  1. ^ a b ICA Co-operative Principles, 1937, 1966, and 1995 revisions.
  2. ^ Statement on the Co-operative Identity, 1995 version.
  3. ^ Special Committee, The Present Application of the Rochdale Principles of Co-operation (1937), International Co-operative Alliance, p. 2, http://www.ica.coop/coop/1937-01.html 

External links

Article for lay audience, tracing the early history of the Rochdale Pioneers and the Rochdale Principles.


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