- Tullio Levi-Civita
Infobox Scientist

name = Tullio Levi-Civita

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caption = Tullio Levi-Civita

birth_date =March 29 ,1873

birth_place =Padua

death_date =December 29 ,1941

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nationality = Italian

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field =mathematician

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known_for =absolute differential calculus

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footnotes =**Tullio Levi-Civita**(March 29 ,1873 —December 29 ,1941 ) (pronounced /'levi ˈʧivita/) was an Italianmathematician , most famous for his work onabsolute differential calculus (tensor calculus ) and its applications to thetheory of relativity but who also made significant contributions in other areas. He was a pupil ofGregorio Ricci-Curbastro , the inventor of tensor calculus. His work included foundational papers in both pure and applied mathematics,celestial mechanics (notably on thethree-body problem ) andhydrodynamics .**Biography**Born into an Italian family in

Padua , Levi-Civita was the son of Giacomo Levi-Civita, a lawyer and former senator. He graduated in 1892 from theUniversity of Padua Faculty of Mathematics. In 1894 he earned a teaching diploma after which he was appointed to the Pavia Faculty of Science teacher's college. In 1898 he was appointed to the Padua Chair of Rational Mechanics where he met and, in 1914, married Libera Trevisani, one of his pupils. He remained in his position at Padua until 1918, when he was appointed to the Chair of Higher Analysis at the University of Rome; in another two years he was appointed to the Chair of Mechanics there.In 1900 he and Ricci-Curbastro published "the theory of

tensor s in Méthodes de calcul differential absolu et leurs applications" whichAlbert Einstein used as a resource to master the tensor calculus, a critical tool in Einstein's development of the theory ofgeneral relativity . Levi-Civita's series of papers on the problem of a static gravitational field were also discussed in his 1915–1917 correspondence with Einstein. The correspondence was initiated by Levi-Civita, as he found mathematical errors in Einstein's use of tensor calculus to explain theory of relativity. Levi-Civita methodically kept all of Einstein's replies to him, and even though Einstein hadn't kept Levi-Civita's, the entire correspondence could be re-constructed from Levi-Civita's archive. It's evident from these letters that, after numerous letters, the two men had grown to respect each other. In one of the letters, regarding Levi-Civita's new work, Einstein wrote "I admire the elegance of your method of computation; it must be nice to ride through these fields upon the horse of true mathematics while the like of us have to make our way laboriously on foot". In 1933 Levi-Civita contributed toPaul Dirac 's equations inquantum mechanics as well. [*C Cattani and M De Maria, Geniality and rigor: the Einstein - Levi-Civita correspondence (1915–1917), "Riv. Stor. Sci." (2) 4 (1) (1996), 1–22; as cited in MacTutor archive.*]His textbook on tensor calculus, "The Absolute Differential Calculus" (originally a set of lecture notes in Italian co-authored with Ricci-Curbastro), remains one of the standard texts more than a century after its first publication, with several translations available.

In 1938, when racial laws were passed by Italian Fascist government, Levi-Civita lost his professorship and membership in all scientific societies. He eventually died isolated from the rest of the scientific world in his apartment in Rome in 1941.

Among his Ph.D. students were

Octav Onicescu andGheorghe Vrânceanu .Later on, when asked what he liked best about Italy, Einstein said "spaghetti and Levi-Civita". [

*Citation|last = Jackson|first = Allyn|year = 1996|contribution = Celebrating the 100*]^{th}Annual Meeting of the AMS|editor-last = Case|editor-first = Bettye Anne|title = A Century of Mathematical Meetings|place = Providence, RI|publisher =American Mathematical Society |id = ISBN 0-8218-0465-0|pages = 10–18**Other Studies and Honors**Analytic dynamics was another aspect of Levi-Civita's studies: many of his articles examine the

three body problem . He wrote articles on hydrodynamics and on systems of differential equations. He is credited with improvements to theCauchy-Kowalevski theorem , on which he wrote a book in 1931. In 1933, he contributed to work on theDirac equation .The

Royal Society awarded him theSylvester Medal in 1922 and elected him as a fellow in 1930. He became an honorary member of theLondon Mathematical Society , of theRoyal Society of Edinburgh , and of theEdinburgh Mathematical Society , following his participation in their colloquium in 1930 at theUniversity of St Andrews . He was also a member of theAccademia dei Lincei and theAccademia Pontificia .Like

Vito Volterra , being Jewish and an anti-fascist, he was expelled from the Academy in his country and died from sorrow.**Writings*** Tullio Levi-Civita and Ugo Amaldi "Lezioni di meccanica razionale (Bologna: N. Zanichelli, 1923)"

* Tullio Levi-Civita and Enrico Persico "Fondamenti di meccanica relativistica ( Bologna : N. Zanichelli, 1928)"

* Tullio Levi-Civita "Lezioni di calcolo differenziale assoluto"

* Tullio Levi-Civita "Caratteristiche e propagazione ondosa"

* Tullio Levi-Civita "Questioni di mecanica classica e relativista ( Bologna, N. Zanichelli, 1924)"

* Tullio Levi "Problème des N Corps en relativité générale (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1950, Mémorial des sciences mathématiques ISSN: 0025-9187)"

* Tullio Levi-Civita and Ugo Amaldi "Nozioni di balistica esterna"**Notes****Bibliography***Levi-Civita, T.: Nozione di parallelismo in una varieta qualunque, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 42 (1917), 173-205.

* Amir D. Aczel, "God's Equation", MJF Books, New York, 1999.

* Angelo Loinger, "Einstein, Levi-Civita, and Bianchi relations", arXiv:physics/0702244v1 [physics.gen-ph]**ee also***

Levi-Civita connection

*Levi-Civita symbol **External links***MacTutor Biography|id=Levi-Civita

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* [*http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Levi-Civita.html Scienceworld biography*]

* [*http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/L/Levi-Civita/1.html Another short biography*]

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**Tullio Levi-Civita**— Naissance 29 mars 1873 Padoue ( … Wikipédia en Français**Tullio levi-civita**— (29 mars 1873 à Padoue, Italie 29 décembre 1941 à Rome) est un mathématicien italien. Il est connu principalement pour son travail sur le calcul tensoriel et ses applications en théorie de la relativité. Il fut l assistant de Gregorio Ricci… … Wikipédia en Français**Tullio Levi-Civita**— Nacimiento 29 de Marzo, 1873 Padua Fallecimiento 29 de Diciembre, 1941 Roma Nacionalidad Italiano Campo matemáticas … Wikipedia Español**Tullio Levi-Civita**— (* 29. März 1873 in Padua; † 29. Dezember 1941 in Rom) war ein italienischer Mathematiker. Levi Civita 1930 Er war Schüler von Gregorio Ricci Curbastro und wurde 1898 Professor für Mechanik in Padua. 1918 ging er dann nach Rom. 1938 wurde er vom… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Tullio Levi-Civita**— (1873 1941) fue un matemático italiano, famoso por su trabajo sobre cálculo tensorial pero quién también hizo contribuciones significativas en otras áreas, algunas relacionadas con ese trabajo y algunas no. Era un discipulo de Gregorio Ricci… … Enciclopedia Universal**Tullio Levi-Cevita**— Tullio Levi Civita Tullio Levi Civita (29 mars 1873 à Padoue, Italie 29 décembre 1941 à Rome) est un mathématicien italien. Il est connu principalement pour son travail sur le calcul tensoriel et ses applications en théorie de la relativité. Il… … Wikipédia en Français**Levi-Civita**— Tullio Levi Civita (* 29. März 1873 in Padua; † 29. Dezember 1941 in Rom) war ein italienischer Mathematiker. Er war Schüler von Gregorio Ricci Curbastro und wurde 1898 Professor für Mechanik in Padua. 1918 ging er dann nach Rom. 1938 wurde er… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Levi-Civita**— * Tullio Levi Civita, a Jewish Italian mathematician * Levi Civita (crater), a crater on the Moon * Levi Civita symbol, a mathematical symbol, also called permutation symbol or antisymmetric symbol … Wikipedia**Levi-Civita-Zusammenhang**— In der Mathematik, insbesondere in der riemannschen Geometrie, einem Teilgebiet der Differentialgeometrie, versteht man unter einem Levi Civita Zusammenhang einen Zusammenhang auf dem Tangentialbündel einer riemannschen oder semi riemannschen… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Levi-Civita-Tensor**— Das Levi Civita Symbol , auch Permutationssymbol, (ein wenig nachlässig) total antisymmetrischer Tensor oder Epsilon Tensor genannt, ist ein Symbol, das in der Physik bei der Vektor und Tensorrechnung nützlich ist. Das Symbol bezeichnet die… … Deutsch Wikipedia