Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.


Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
Born August 27, 1915(1915-08-27)
Washington, DC
Died November 4, 2011(2011-11-04) (aged 96)
Wayland, Massachusetts
Residence United States
Nationality United States
Fields Physics
Institutions Harvard University
Alma mater Columbia University, University of Cambridge
Known for Separated oscillatory field method
Notable awards IEEE Medal of Honor
1989 Nobel Prize in Physics

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. (August 27, 1915 – November 4, 2011) was an American physicist. A physics professor at Harvard University since 1947, Ramsey also held several posts with such government and international agencies as NATO and the United States Atomic Energy Commission. He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention, in 1949, of the separated oscillatory field method, which had important applications in the construction of atomic clocks. The Prize was shared with Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul. Among his other accomplishments are helping to found the United States Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab.[1]

Contents

Ramsey Method

In 1949, while working at Harvard, Ramsey applied a key insight to improve Columbia University physicist Isidor Rabi's method of studying atoms and molecules. In 1937, Rabi used alternating magnetic fields to characterize atomic matter. Ramsey exposed the atoms to the magnetic field only as they entered or exited his device. Ramsey called it the separated oscillatory fields method; today it is simply called the Ramsey Method.

Dr. Ramsey's work led, ultimately, to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine.[2]

The Ramsey Method also was key in developing the atomic clock. As of 1967, a second of time was no longer defined by a fraction of the earth's revolution around the sun, but rather as 9,192,631,770 radiation cycles of a cesium atom.

In 1960, Ramsey invented an atomic clock based on the hydrogen maser, a design used today in Global Positioning System satellites.

Biography

Ramsey was born in Washington, DC on August 27, 1915 to Minna Bauer Ramsey, a mathematics teacher, and Norman Foster Ramsey, an Army officer. He earned his B.A. and Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University in 1935 and 1940, respectively. He stayed on as a member of the Columbia faculty until 1947, when he moved to Harvard University.[1] He died on November 4, 2011.

Publications

References

  1. ^ a b "Norman Ramsey Dies at 96; Work Led to the Atomic Clock". New York Times. November 6, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/07/us/norman-ramsey-dies-at-96-work-led-to-the-atomic-clock.html?ref=obituaries. Retrieved 2011-11-07. "Norman F. Ramsey, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist who developed a precise method to probe the structure of atoms and molecules and used it to devise a remarkably exact way to keep time, died on Friday in Wayland, Mass. He was 96. ..." 
  2. ^ Norman Ramsey Dies at 96; Work Led to the Atomic Clock, New York Times on-line, November 6, 2011

External links


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  • Norman Foster Ramsey — (* 27. August 1915 in Washington, D.C.) ist ein US amerikanischer Physiker. 1989 erhielt er den Physik Nobelpreis für seine Arbeiten, die zu verbesserten spektroskopischen Verfahren in der Atom , Molekül und Kernphysik und zu präzisen Zeit und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Norman Foster Ramsey — Norman Foster Nombre Norman Foster Ramsey Nacimiento 27 d …   Wikipedia Español

  • Norman Foster Ramsey — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ramsey. Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr., 27 août 1915 à Washington, D.C. et mort le 4 novembre 2011, est un physicien américain. Il est lauréat de la moitié du prix Nobel de physique de 1989[1] not …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Physiknobelpreis 1989: Hans Georg Dehmelt — Wolfgang Paul — Norman Foster Ramsey —   Ramsey wurde für seine Ausarbeitung einer verbesserten Messtechnik bei atomaren Energieübergängen, Dehmelt für die Entwicklung der Penning Falle zum Einschluss von Ionen oder Elektronen und Paul für die Entwicklung der Paul Falle zum Einschluss …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Norman F. Ramsey — Norman Foster Ramsey Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ramsey. Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. (né le 27 août, 1915, à Washington, DC) est un physicien américain. Professeur de physique à l Université Harvard depuis 1947, Ramsey a aussi tenu plusieurs… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Norman Foster — or Norm Foster may refer to: * Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank (born 1935), English architect and designer * Norman Foster (director) (1900–1976), American film director * Norman Foster (Australian politician) (1921–2006) * Norm Foster …   Wikipedia

  • Norman Foster (disambiguation) — Norman Foster or Norm Foster may refer to: Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank (born 1935), English architect and designer Norman Foster (Australian politician) (1921–2006) Norman Foster (bass), U.S. operatic bass and actor Norman Foster… …   Wikipedia

  • Ramsey , Norman Foster — (1915–) American physicist Born in Washington DC, Ramsey was educated at Columbia and at Harvard, where he obtained his PhD. He has served as professor of physics at Harvard since 1947. Ramsey was a student of Isidor Rabi and worked with him on… …   Scientists

  • Ramsey, Norman Foster — ▪ American scientist born Aug. 27, 1915, Washington, D.C., U.S.       American physicist who received one half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1989 for his development of a technique to induce atoms to shift from one specific energy level to… …   Universalium

  • Norman Ramsey — Norman Foster Ramsey (* 27. August 1915 in Washington, D. C.; † 4. November 2011 in Wayland, Middlesex County, Massachusetts[1]) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. 1989 erhielt er den Physik Nobelpreis für seine Arbeiten, die zu verbesserten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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