- Flextime plan
Flextime (or flexitime, flexi-time, originally derived from the German word "Gleitzeit" which literally means 'sliding time') is a variable work
schedule, in contrast to traditional work arrangements requiring employees to work a standard 9am to 5pm day. Under flexitime, there is typically a core period of the day when employees are expected to be at work (for example, between 10 am and 4pm), whilst the rest of the working day is "flexitime", in which employees can choose when they work, subject to achieving total daily, weekly or monthly hours in the region of what the employer expects, and subject to the necessary work being done.
A flextime policy allows staff to determine when they will work, while a
flexplacepolicy allows staff to determine where they will work. Its practical realization can mainly be attributed to the entrepreneur Wilhelm Hallerwho founded Hengstler Gleitzeit - and later 'Interflex Datensysteme GmbH' in Southern Germany where today a number of companies offer Flexitime (Gleitzeit) solutions which have grown out of his initiativefact|date=May 2008.
Flextime (or flexitime) in the United Kingdom
In spring 2003, 17.7% of men and 26.7% of women were employed with flexitime arrangements in the
United Kingdom, ( Office for National Statistics2003) [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=7691&Pos=&ColRank=1&Rank=272] . In the United Kingdom, flexitime working is commonplace in both the private and public sectors. The practice is often found in administrative and back office functions of commercial organisations and local councils.
In 2003 the UK Government introduced legislation [ [http://www.dti.gov.uk/employment/employment-legislation/employment-guidance/page35662.html UK Department of Trade and Industry employment guidance] ] that gave parents of children under 6, or the parents of disabled children under 18, the right in law to request a flexible working arrangement from their employer. A survey in 2005 by the National Office of Statistics [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_labour/Flexible_working_July05.pdf] showed that 71% of female workers and 60% of male workers were aware of the rights created under the 2003 legislation. Between 2003 and 2005 more than 14% of all workers had requested a change to flexible working. From
6 April 2007the law will extend the right to request flexible working to careers of adults.
Shift workers are generally excluded from flexitime schemes as are senior managers. Other groups of workers for whom flexitime arrangements are rare include those who serve the public during specific opening times.
For employers, flexitime can aid the recruitment and retention of staff. It can also help provide staff cover outside normal working hours and reduce the need for
overtime. Additionally flexitime can also improve the provision of equal opportunitiesto staff unable to work standard hours.
Flexitime can give employees greater freedom to organise their working lives to suit personal needs. In addition, travelling can be cheaper and easier if it is out of peak time.
On the debit side, flexitime can result in increased administration costs. These may include the costs of keeping records, and extra heating and lighting. Providing adequate supervision throughout the bandwidth may also be difficult. (
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service2006)
Flextime in the United States
United States, flextime workers, like salaried workers exempted from overtimeregulations, are given broad leeway in setting their own work schedule. Unlike exempted salaried workers, employers are still required to pay overtime to a flextime worker if they work more than 40 hours per week; some employers dodge this policy by dismissing their employees shortly before their scheduled working hours have been completed. In addition, the employer will usually require that a flextime employee works a minimum number of hours each week.
In recent years, the term "flextime" has acquired a more controversial definition when used to describe proposals to overhaul the nation's overtime regulations. Under one such proposal by the Bush administration made public on
August 5, 2004, employers would not be required to pay non-exempt employees overtime for working more than 40 hours in a week so long as the employee works no more than 80 hours over a two week period. For example, a worker could be required to work 70 hours one week and receive no overtime compensation as long as they work 10 hours or less the following week. Such arrangements are opposed by labor organizations such as the AFL-CIO.
In certain industries such as
information technology, flextime permits workers to vary their schedule for example such as working four 10 hour days per week, this allows workers to put in enough hours Monday through Thursday and leave early on Friday. Other workers come in early such as 5 or 6 am (0500 to 0600) and leave in the mid-afternoon or come in late and therefore leave late. One benefit of such a schedule is that commuting times occur outside of the congested rush hourtraffic within a given geographic region. Flextime arrangements also help parents: one parent works 10am-6pm and is in charge of the children before school/daycare, while the other parent works 7am-3pm and is in charge of the children after school/daycare. This allows parents time to commute [http://www.momsrising.org/work] . Flextime is also beneficial to workers pursuing an education.
In the U.S., flextime generally applies only to
white collarworkers. It is an ongoing part of the work-life balancediscussions going on in many companies.
Flextime in Australia
Flextime in Australia is usually referred to accumulated overtime hours that an employee can build up and exchange for the equivalent amount of time off. (Example: Jane works 7am - 3pm Monday to Friday. Over the past month, Jane has worked 8 hours overtime meaning she is eligible for a paid day off.) It is implemented formally in the Australian Federal Public Service and is available for staff in most state and territory government departments. With current changes to industrial relations laws (2006), from State to Federal level there are no new published guidelines (online) for flextime.
Recording flexitime working
There are many different methods used for recording working time ranging from sophisticated software (computer programmes)to handwritten time sheets. Most of these methods are associated with the payment of wages in return for hours worked. As a result they often do not address a fundamental difference of most flexible working systems - namely the intention of flexible working to allow an employee to "trade hours" with their employer in return for a fixed wage (Citation
title=The Third Work-Life Balance Employer Survey: Main Findings
newspaper=UK Govt. Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform
Fair Labor Standards Act(United States)
Office for National Statistics(UK)
Equal Opportunity Employment
Labour market flexibility
* [http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=630&articleaction=print Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service (2006) ‘Flexible working hours’]
* [http://www.flexitimeplanner.com/Flexi-time-policy.aspx Flexi time articles and links]
* [http://flexitimemanager.co.uk/ Flexi Time Manager]
* [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=943323 The Value of Flextime]
* [http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/socialpolicies/socialcohesiondev/source/Trends/Trends-15_en.pdf Reconciling labour flexibility with social cohesion — Facing the challenge]
* [http://www.mitrefinch.co.uk Mitrefinch Time management Systems]
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