- Pugachev's Cobra
In aerobatics, Pugachev's Cobra (or Pugachev Cobra) is a dramatic and demanding manoeuvre in which a plane flying at a moderate speed suddenly raises the nose momentarily to the vertical position and slightly beyond, before dropping it back to normal flight. It uses a potent engine thrust to maintain approximately constant altitude through the entire move. The figure has several combat uses including spoofing doppler radar, and is also an impressive trick to demonstrate aircraft's pitch control authority, high angle of attack (AOA) stability and engine-versus-inlet compatibility, as well as the pilot's skill. The manoeuvre is named after the Soviet test pilot Viktor Pugachev, who first performed the manoeuvre publicly in 1989 at the Paris Le Bourget air show. Initially the Cobra was performed by Sukhoi's test pilot Igor Volk while testing the new Sukhoi Su-27 fighter.
In case of the Su-27, initially the pilot disengages the angle of attack limiter of the plane, normally set at 26°. This action also disengages the g limiter. After that the pilot pulls back on the stick hard. The aircraft reaches 90–120° angle of attack with a slight gain of altitude and a significant loss of speed. When the elevator is centered, the drag at the rear of the plane causes torque, thus making the aircraft pitch forward. At that time the pilot adds power to compensate for the lift loss. In a properly performed Pugachev's Cobra, the plane maintains almost straight flight throughout the manoeuvre; the plane does not roll or yaw in either direction. Proper entry speed is significant because, if entering at too low a speed, the pilot might not be able to accomplish the manoeuvre; entering at too high a speed might result in the g-force sufficient[clarification needed] for the airframe to be damaged, or for the pilot to lose consciousness.[verification needed]
While Pugachev's Cobra can be executed using only standard aerodynamic controls, it could be achieved more easily with modern thrust vectoring. In the latter case it would be an example of supermanoevreability, specifically poststall manoeuvreing. The Herbst manoeuvre and the helicopter manoeuvre are other examples of the recent growing use of vectored thrust in 4.5 and 5th generation aircraft, manned as well as unmanned.
Examples of aircraft capable of the manoeuvre
- Sukhoi Su-27 and variants (Su-30/Su-30MKI/Su-30MKM to Su-37)
- Mikoyan MiG-29 and Mikoyan MiG-35
- F-22 Raptor
- Dassault Rafale
- F-16 MATV/VISTA
- F/A-18 HARV
- Rockwell-MBB X-31 (experimental)
- Cobra Turn
- Kulbit, a more demanding combat manoeuvre (performed for example by Sukhoi Su-37, etc.)
- ^ a b c d e Mike Spick (2002). The Illustrated Directory of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesotta: MBI Publishing Company. p. 442. ISBN 0760313431. http://books.google.com/books?id=p40nOZgeh84C&pg=PA442&lpg=PA442&dq=Pugachev%20Cobra. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- ^ Из космоса — на самолёт!
- ^ What is cobra?, AeroWeb.Lucia.it
- ^ Malcolm J. Abzug; E. Eugene Larrabee. Airplane stability and control: a history of the technologies that made aviation possible. pp. 157–161. ISBN 9780521809924. http://books.google.com/books?id=D-ctX2Q-CSIC&lpg=PA160&dq=thrust%20vectoring%20cobra&pg=PA160#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ^ Benjamin Gal-Or, "Vectored Propulsion, Supermanoeuvreability, and Robot Aircraft", Springer Verlag, 1990, ISBN 0-387-97161-0, 3-540-97161-0
- ^ a b c International journal of turbo & jet-engines: Volume 11. http://books.google.com/books?id=0SxQAAAAYAAJ&q=Pugachev+Cobra&dq=Pugachev+Cobra&hl=en&ei=s8-JTbKLIZK2hAet042nDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBA. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ^ Cobra and Kulbit by F-22
- Interview with Pugachev about this manoeuvre
- Fighter Technology of the Future
- USAF & NATO Report RTO-TR-015 AC/323/(HFM-015)/TP-1 (2001).
Aerial warfare Maneuvers Topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Cobra Turn — The Cobra Turn is a fighter aircraft maneuver. It is a variation on the Pugachev s Cobra where the aircraft performs the pull up, but instead of returning to level flight applies rudder or thrust vectoring and turns downward. John Turner of BAE… … Wikipedia
Cobra (disambiguation) — A cobra is any of several species of snake. Cobra may also refer to: Contents 1 Fictional entities 2 Government and police 3 L … Wikipedia
Cobra (Homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Taxon 2 Dans la fiction 3 Art … Wikipédia en Français
Cobra de Pugachev — La cobra de Pugachev es una acrobacia aérea consistente en levantar el morro del avión hasta formar un ángulo de 120º reduciendo drásticamente la velocidad en pocos segundos pero sin perder altura. El primer piloto que la ejecutó fue Victor… … Wikipedia Español
Cobra (desambiguación) — El término Cobra puede referir a: Contenido 1 Animales 2 Aeronáutica 3 Artes 4 Deportes 5 Cine y Televi … Wikipedia Español
Pugachev Cobra — Das Kobramanöver beschreibt ein Flugmanöver, welches von einigen Düsenflugzeugen durchgeführt werden kann. Dabei zieht der Pilot die Maschine so schnell nach oben, dass sich zwar die Neigung des Flugzeuges verändert, aber die Flugrichtung sich… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Supermaneuverability — is quality of aircraft defined as a threshold of attitude control exceeding that which is possible by pure aerodynamic maneuverability. It is a trait of some advanced fourth generation and 4.5 generation fighter aircraft and is generally a… … Wikipedia
Sukhoi Su-33 — infobox Aircraft name =Su 33 type =Multirole fighter manufacturer =Sukhoi caption =An Su 33 on board Admiral Kuznetsov . designer = first flight =May 1985 introduction =1994 retired = status = Operational primary user =Russian Naval Aviation more … Wikipedia
Sukhoi Su-30 — infobox Aircraft name = Su 30 type = Strike fighter manufacturer = Sukhoi caption = Indian Air Force Su 30K landing with an airbrake. designer = first flight = 1989 introduction = 1996 status = Operational primary user = Russian Air Force more… … Wikipedia
Air combat manoeuvring — Air combat maneuvering (ACM) is the art of maneuvering a combat aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. It relies on offensive and defensive Basic Fighter maneuvering (BFM) in order to gain an… … Wikipedia