- Biblical inerrancy
Biblical inerrancy is the conservative evangelical doctrinal position [ [http://www.dts.edu/about/doctrinalstatement/ Doctrinal Statement - Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) ] ] that in its original form, the
Bibleis totally without error, and free from all contradiction; "referring to the complete accuracy of Scripture, including the historical and scientific parts."cite book|last=Geisler & Nix|publisher=Moody Press, Chicago|year=1986|title=A General Introduction to the Bible|isbn= ISBN 0-8024-2916-5] Inerrancy is distinguished from Biblical infallibility(or limited inerrancy), which holds that the Bible is inerrant on issues of faith and practice but not history or science.cite journal|last=Coleman|journal=Theology Today Volume 31, No. 4|year=1975|title=Biblical Inerrancy: Are We Going Anywhere?]
Textual tradition of the New Testament
There are over 5,600 Greek
manuscripts containing all or part of the New Testament, as well as over 10,000 Latin manuscripts, and perhaps 500 other manuscripts of various other languages. Additionally, there are the Patristicwritings which contain copious quotes, across the early centuries, of the scriptures.
Most of these manuscripts date to the
Middle Ages. The oldest complete copy of the New Testament, the Codex Sinaiticus, dates to the 4th century. The earliest fragment of a New Testament book is the Rylands Library Papyrus P52which dates to the mid 2nd centuryand is the size of a business card. Very early manuscripts are rare.
The average NT manuscript is about 200 pages, and in all, we have about 1.3 million pages of text. No two manuscripts are identical, except in the smallest fragments, and the many manuscripts which preserve New Testament texts differ among themselves in many respects, with some estimates of 200,000 to 300,000 differences among the various manuscripts. [See Ehrman, "Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew", p. 219] According to Ehrman, [See Ehrman, "Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew", p. 220]
In the 2008 [http://www.greer-heard.com/ Greer-Heard] debate series, noted NT scholars
Bart Ehrmanand Daniel B. Wallacediscussed these variances in detail. Wallace mentioned that understanding the meaning of the number of variances is not as simple as looking at the number of variances, but one must consider also the number of manuscripts, the types of errors, and among the more serious discrepancies, what impact they do or do not have. [ [http://www.watchman.org/store/index.cfm?fuseaction=product.display&Product_ID=914&CFID=3707922&CFTOKEN=33901456 The Textual Reliability of the New Testament] mp3 of debate]
Some familiar examples of Gospel passages thought to have been added by later interpolators include the
Pericope Adulteræ(John 7:53 - 8:11), the Comma Johanneum(1 John 5:7–8), and the longer ending in Mark 16(Mark 16:9-20). Fact|date=June 2008
For hundreds of years, biblical and textual scholars have examined the manuscripts extensively. Since the eighteenth century, they have employed the techniques of
textual criticismto reconstruct how the extant manuscripts of the New Testament texts might have descended, and to recover earlier recensions of the texts. However, some inerrantists often prefer the traditional texts used in their churches to modern attempts of reconstruction, arguing that the Holy Spiritis just as active in the preservation of the scriptures as in their creation. These inerrantists are found particularly in non-Protestant churches, but also a few Protestant groups hold such views.
Many Bibles have footnotes to indicate areas where there is disagreement between source documents. Bible commentaries offer discussions of these.
Evangelical Christiansgenerally accept the findings of textual criticism, and nearly all modern translations, including the popular New International Version, work from a Greek New Testament based on modern textual criticism.
Since this means that the manuscript copies are not perfect, inerrancy is only applied to the original autographs (the manuscripts written by the original authors) rather than the copies. For instance, the
Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancysays, "We affirm that inspiration, strictly speaking, applies only to the autographic text of Scripture"
Less commonly, more conservative views are held by some groups:
King James Only
A faction of those in the "The
King-James-Only Movement" holds that the translators of the King James VersionEnglish Bible were guided by God, and that the KJV thus is to be taken as the authoritative English Bible. However, those who hold this opinion do not extend it to the KJV translation into English of the Apocryphal books, which were produced along with the rest of the Authorized Version. Modern translations differ from the KJV on numerous points, sometimes resulting from access to different early texts, largely as a result of work in the field of Textual Criticism. Upholders of the KJV-only position nevertheless hold that the Protestantcanon of KJV is itself an inspired text and therefore remains authoritative. The King-James-Only Movementasserts that the KJV is the "sole" English translation free from error.
Similar to the King James Only view is the view that translations must be derived from the
Textus Receptusin order to be considered inerrant. As the King James Version is an English translation, this leaves speakers of other languages in a difficult position, hence the belief in the Textus Receptus as the inerrant source text for translations to modern languages. For example, in Spanish-speaking cultures the commonly accepted "KJV-equivalent" is the Reina-Valera1909 revision (with different groups accepting, in addition to the 1909 or in its place, the revisions of 1862 or 1960).
Logic for arriving at the doctrine of inerrancy
A number of reasons are offered by Christian theologians to justify Biblical inerrancy.
Norman Geislerand William Nix(1986) claim that scriptural inerrancy is established by a number of observations and processes, which include:cite book
Norman Geislerand William Nix
publisher=Moody Press, Chicago
title=A General Introduction to the Bible
isbn= ISBN 0-8024-2916-5] :* the historical accuracy of the Bible:* the Bible's claims of its own inerrancy:* church history and tradition:* one's individual experience with God
Daniel B. Wallace, Professor of New Testament at Dallas Theological Seminary, divides the various evidences into two approaches - deductive and inductive approaches. [ [http://www.bible.org/page.php?page_id=4200 My Take on Inerrancy] , [http://www.bible.org bible.org] website]
Deductive Reasoning to arrive at Inerrancy
The deductive approach starts with the presupposition that the bible is inspired, and therefore, self-authorizing. In other words, if it claims to be inerrant, based on its own authority, it is, and all other evidences are marshaled to support that pre-supposition.
The first deductive justification is that the Bible claims to be inspired by God (for instance "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness" (
2 Timothy3:16 NIV), and because God is perfect, the Bible must also be perfect, and hence free from error. For instance, the statement of faith of the Evangelical Theological Societysays, "The Bible alone, and the Bible in its entirety, is the Word of God written and is therefore inerrant in the autographs." [ [http://www.etsjets.org/?q=about About the ETS] , Evangelical Theological Societyweb site]
A second reason offered is that
Jesusand the apostles used the Old Testamentin a way which assumes it is inerrant. For instance in Galatians 3:16, Paul bases his argument on the fact that the word "seed" in the Genesis reference to "Abraham and his seed", is singular rather than plural. This (it is claimed) sets a precedent for inerrant interpretation down to the individual letters of the words. ["Bible, Inerrancy and Infallibility of", by P.D.Feinberg, in "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology" (Baker, 1984, Ed. W.Elwell)] Similarly Jesus said that every minute detail of the Old Testament Law must be fulfilled (Matthew 5:18), indicating (it is claimed) that every detail must be correct. ["Bible, Inerrancy and Infallibility of", by P.D.Feinberg, in "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology" (Baker, 1984, Ed. W.Elwell)]
For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Matthew 5:18, KJV
Although in these verses Jesus and the apostles are only referring to the
Old Testament, the argument extends to the New Testamentwritings, because 2 Peter 3:16 accords the status of Scripture to New Testament writings also: "He (Paul) writes the same way in all his letters... which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures" (2 Peter 3:16, NIV). [ [http://beta.biblestudytools.com/mybst/default.aspx?type=library&contentid=88104&category=REF Bible, Inspiration of] , by Nigel M. de S. Cameron, in "Baker's Evanglical Dictionary of Biblical Theology", Edited by Walter A. Elwell, Baker, 1996]
Inductive Reasoning to arrive at Inerrancy
Wallace describes the inductive approach by enlisting the Presbyterian theologian
B. B. Warfield:
In his [http://www.amazon.com/Inspiration-Authority-Bible-Benjamin-Warfield/dp/087552527X Inspiration and Authority of the Bible] , Warfield lays out an argument for inerrancy that has been virtually ignored by today’s evangelicals. Essentially, he makes a case for inerrancy on the basis of inductive evidence, rather than deductive reasoning. Most evangelicals today follow E. J. Young’s deductive approach toward bibliology, forgetting the great articulator of inerrancy. But Warfield starts with the evidence that the Bible is a historical document, rather than with the presupposition that it is inspired.
Doctrine of Preservation
One related, and some would say "essential" support to inerrancy is the doctrine of
Biblical preservation, which simply states that we can trust the scriptures because God has sovereignly managed the transmission process.
The doctrine maintains that inasmuch as God divinely inspired the text He also divinely preserved it throughout the centuries. [ [http://www.quodlibet.net/weil-inerrancy.shtml Inerrancy and its Implications for Authority: Textual Critical Considerations in Formulating an Evangelical Doctrine of Scripture] Quodlibet Journal: Volume 4 Number 4, November 2002 ]
ome Clarifications of the Doctrine of Inerrancy
Inerrancy as "Accurate" v. "True"
Harold Lindsell points out that it is a "gross distortion" to state that people who believe in inerrancy suppose every statement made in the Bible is true (opposed to accurate).Lindsell, Harold. "The Battle for the Bible", Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA (1976), pg. 38.] He indicates there are expressly false statements in the Bible which are reported accurately (for example, Satan is a liar whose lies are accurately reported as to what he actually said).
Limitations of inerrancy
Many who believe in the "Inspiration" of scripture teach that it is "infallible" but not inerrant. Those who subscribe to infallibility believe that what the scriptures say regarding matters of faith and Christian practice are wholly useful and true. Some denominations that teach infallibility hold that the historical or scientific details, which may be irrelevant to matters of faith and Christian practice, may contain errors. Those who believe in inerrancy hold that the scientific, geographic, and historic details and of the scriptural texts in their original manuscripts are completely true and without error, though the scientific claims of scripture must be interpreted in the light of its phenomenological nature, not just with strict, clinical literality, which was foreign to historical narratives.
Proponents of biblical inerrancy generally do not teach that the Bible was dictated directly by God, but that God used the "distinctive personalities and literary styles of the writers" of scripture and that God's inspiration guided them to flawlessly project his message through their own language and personality. [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Chicago_Statement_on_Biblical_Inerrancy Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy] , Article VIII]
Infallibility and inerrancy refer to the original texts of the Bible. And while conservative scholars acknowledge the potential for human error in transmission and translation, modern translations are considered to "faithfully represent the originals". [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Chicago_Statement_on_Biblical_Inerrancy Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy] , Article X]
Criticisms of biblical inerrancy
cientific and historical criticism
Biblical inerrancy has been criticized on the grounds that many statements about
historyor sciencethat are found in Scripture, if taken literally, rather than [http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/4F70/ph.php phenomenologically] , may be construed to be untenable or contradictory. Inerrancy is argued to be a falsifiable proposition: if the Bible is found to contain any mistakes or contradictions, the proposition of strict inerrancy has been refuted. Many inerrantists have offered explanations of why these are not errors.
"Specific errors are outside the scope of this article, but are discussed in
Criticism of the Bible, Internal consistency of the Bible, Science and the Bibleand The Bible and history."
"Theological criticisms" refers to criticisms which are that the Bible does not teach, or require, its own inerrancy.
Proponents of biblical inerrancy often prefer the translations of bibleverse|2|Timothy|3:16|9 that render it as "all scripture is given by inspiration of God,", and they interpret this to mean that the whole Bible is inerrant. However, critics of this doctrine think that the Bible makes no direct claim to be inerrant or infallible.
C H Doddargues the same sentence can also be translated "Every inspired scripture is also useful..." nor does the verse define the Biblical canon. [ C H Dodd, 'The Authority of the Bible' page 25, London, 1960.] In context, this passage refers only to the Old Testament writings understood to be scripture at the time it was written [New Jerusalem Bible, study edition, page 1967, DLT 1994] . However there are indications that Paul's writings were being considered, at least by the author of the Second Epistle of Peter(bibleverse|2|Peter|3:16|9), as comparable to the Old Testament [New Jerusalem Bible, page 2010, footnote (i) DLT 1985] .
The idea that the Bible contains no mistakes is mainly justified by appeal to
prooftexts that refer to its divine inspiration. However, this argument has been criticized as circular reasoning, because these statements only have to be accepted as true if the Bible is already thought to be inerrant. None of these texts say that because a text is inspired, it is therefore always correct in its historical or moral statements.Fact|date=May 2008
According to Bishop
John Shelby Spong, the doctrine of biblical inerrancy has been a historical substitute for papal infallibility. "When Martin Luthercountered the authority of the infallible pope, he did so in the name of his new authority, the infallible Scriptures. This point of view was generally embraced by all of the Reformation churches. The Bible thus became the paper pope of Protestantism." [http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1686]
Meaning of "Word of God"
Much debate over the kind of authority that should be accorded biblical texts centers on what is meant by the "Word of God". The term can refer to Christ Himself as well as to the proclamation of his ministry as
kerygma. However, biblical inerrancy differs from this orthodoxy in viewing the Word of God to mean the entire text of the Bible when interpreted didactically as God's teaching. [James Barr, 'Fundamentalism' p.72ff, SCM 1977.] The idea of the Bible itself as Word of God, as being itself God's revelation, is criticized in neo-orthodoxy. Here the Bible is seen as a unique witness to the people and deeds that do make up the Word of God. However, it is a wholly human witness. [James Barr, 'Fundamentalism' pp.218-219 SCM 1977] All books of the Bible were written by human persons. Thus, whether the Bible is - in whole or in part [ Exodusclaims of the Ethical Decalogueand Ritual Decaloguethat these are God's word.] - the Word of God is not clear. However, critics argue that the Bible can still be construed as the "Word of God" in the sense that these authors' statements may have been representative of, and perhaps even directly influenced by, God's own knowledge.
There is only one instance in the Bible where the phrase "The Word Of God" refers to something "written". The reference is to the "
Decalogue" which many Christian denominations consider "passed away". However, most of the other references are to reported speech which is preserved in the Bible. The New Testament also contains a number of statements which refer to passages from the Old Testament as God's words, for instance Romans 3:2 (which says that the Jews have been "entrusted with the very words of God"), or the book of Hebrews, which often prefaces Old Testament quotations with words such as "God says". The Bible also contains words spoken by human beings "to" God, such as Eliphaz(Job 42:7) and the prayers and songs of the Psalter. That these are God's words addressed to us was at the root of a lively mediaeval controversy. [Uriel Simon, "Four Appraoches to the Book of Psalms" chap. 1] The idea of the word of God is more that God is encountered in scripture, than that every line of scripture is a statement made by God. [Alexander Ryrie "Deliver Us From Evil" DLT 2004]
The phrase "The Word Of God" is never applied to the modern Bible, within the Bible itself. Supporters of inerrancy argue that that is simply because the Biblical canon was not closed.Fact|date=April 2008
"Practical objections" refers to arguments which do not seek to disprove inerrancy "per se", but which attempt to demonstrate that the Bible is irrelevant or meaningless.
One point that has been argued is that, even if the text were guaranteed inerrant in its original language, this no longer holds true after translation, because there is no such thing as a perfect translation. The original texts were primarily written in Hebrew and Greek with translations in several ancient languages -
Hebrew, Koine Greek, Coptic and Syriac- which few are now familiar with. Translators from one language to another are often faced with several ways in which a phrase may be translated, particularly in the case of poetic passages, and the language into which the Bible is being translated is constantly evolving and changing. Mistaken translations of the Bible are occasionally proposed or "discovered". For instance, scholars write [New Jerusalem Bible, note g, page 1201.] that an (Isaiah 7:14) did not require that the Messiah's mother be a virgin, only young. It has been proposed that the Gospels' description of the Virgin Mary (Matthew 1:23) were manufactured to fit with a prophecy they themselves read in a mistranslated version.Fact|date=May 2008
Some biblical passages are conventionally treated as verse, and others as different kinds of prose: this has not always been the case. Some of the prose contains many linguistic forms that indicate poetry. The two forms have a certain mutual overlap. Inerrancy as a doctrine itself provides no clear hermeneutic for discovering how the literal communications found in prose can be distinguished from the symbolic and metaphorical elements of poetry.
Calvin's view of Scripture
Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy
Internal consistency of the Bible
An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture
Gleason Archer, 2001. "New Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties". ISBN 0-310-24146-4
N. T. Wright, "The Last Word: Beyond Bible Wars to a New Understanding of the Authority of Scripture." Harper-San Francisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-081609-4
* Kathleen C. Boone: "The Bible Tells Them So: The Discourse of Protestant Fundamentalism", State Univ of New York Press 1989, ISBN 0-88706-895-2
*Ethelbert W.Bullinger, "Figures of Speech Used in the Bible" Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1970.
Bart D. Ehrman, 2003. "Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew". Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-518249-9
* Harvard reference | last = Finkelstein | first = Israel | authorlink = Israel Finkelstein | last2 = Silberman | first2 = Neil Asher | title = | publisher = Simon and Schuster | location = New York | year = 2001 | id = ISBN 0743223381 | url = http://books.google.com/books?lr=&q=Finkelstein+Bible+Unearthed+Exodus+unoccupied&btnG=Search+Books .
Norman Geisler, ed. (1980). "Inerrancy". ISBN 0-310-39281-0.
*Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe, (1999) "When Critics Ask: A Popular Handbook on Bible Difficulties."
*Norman Geisler and William E. Nix., "A General Introduction to the Bible", Moody Publishers; Rev&Expndd edition (August 1986), ISBN 0-8024-2916-5
*Walter C. Kaiser, Peter H. Davids,
F. F. Bruce, Manfred T. Brauch. (1996). "Hard Sayings of the Bible"
Charles Caldwell Ryrie(1981). "What you should know about inerrancy". ISBN 0-8024-8785-8
*Sproul, R. C.. "Hath God Said?" ( [https://ecom.ligonier.org/ecom/product.asp?idProduct=HAT01VC video series] ).
John Walvoord(1990). "What We Believe: Understanding and Applying the Basics of Christian Life". ISBN 0-929239-31-8
*Warfield, B. B. (1977 reprint). "Inspiration and Authority of Bible", with a lengthy introductory essay by
Cornelius Van Til. ISBN 0-8010-9586-7.
* [http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651118_dei-verbum_en.html Dei Verbum] Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (1965)
* [http://www.cesame-nm.org/index.php?name=Sections&req=viewarticle&artid=43&page=4 "The Bible: Is it a True and Accurate Account of Creation? (Part 2): The Position of Major Christian Denominations on Creation and Inerrancy"] , Walter B. Murfin, David F. Beck, 13 April 1998, hosted on [http://www.cesame-nm.org/index.php Coalition for Excellence in Science and Math Education] website
* [http://www.wesleyan.org/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=5B7EE5C4A5BA407D93A6AF61EF94B471&nm=Spiritual+Helps&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=5464710074024B8BA82C3E55BD140EF8 Wesleyan Church beliefs of the Holy Bible]
* [http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/topic/bible.html Monergism.com links] to articles on scripture from a conservative Calvinist perspective
* [http://homepage.mac.com/shanerosenthal/reformationink/bbwauthority.htm The Authority and Inspiration of the Scriptures] by
B. B. Warfield
* [http://www.apologetics.com/default.jsp?bodycontent=/articles/historical_apologetics/habermas-nt.html Why I believe the NT is historically reliable] by
* [http://www.garyhabermas.com/articles/crj_recentperspectives/crj_recentperspectives.htm Recent Perspectives on the Reliability of the Gospels] by Gary R. Habermas
* [http://www.infidels.org/library/magazines/tsr/1992/4/4inerr92.html Why I Believe in the Inerrancy of the Scriptures] by Dave Miller (see Farrell Till below)
* [http://www.wlsessays.net/subject/I/Inerrancy Scholarly articles on Inerrancy from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library]
* [http://www.jba.gr/Articles/jbajan96.htm FAQ about the Bible] by Anastasios Kioulachoglou (The Journal of Biblical Accuracy)
* [http://www.verselink.org/topics/tenreasons/tenreasons1.html Ten reasons why I believe the Bible is The Word of God] by R. A. Torrey
* [http://www.ntwrightpage.com/Wright_Bible_Authoritative.htm How Can The Bible be Authoritative?] by
* [http://www.quodlibet.net/perry-inerrancy.shtml Dissolving the Inerrancy Debate (a postmodern view)]
* [http://www.infidels.org/library/magazines/tsr/1992/4/4evide92.html Bible Inerrancy: A Belief Without Evidence]
Farrell Till's rebuttal to Dave Miller's defense (see above)
* [http://www.biblicalunitarian.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=227 Textual Corruptions Favoring the Trinitarian Position]
* [http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/prism.php?id=73 Isaac Newton's Views on the Corruption of Scripture]
* [http://www.thenazareneway.com/textual_analysis/most_notable_corruptions.htm The Two Most Notable Corruptions of Scripture, by Isaac Newton]
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