- Civaka Cintamani
It belongs to the Sangam tradition of Tamil literature, and is considered one of the five great Tamil epics. In its form, it anticipates the Ramayana of Kambar. Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi was much appreciated by the Chola king who was its patron and was well-received at his Chola court. Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi has been admired for its poetic form, appealing story-line, and theological message. The story concerns a hero who through his virtue rises to become king, only to renounce his high station and pursue a life of religious merit.
A king by the name of Caccantan loses himself in sexual enjoyment with his queen and inadvertently gives control of his kingdom to his corrupt minister Kattiyankaran. Kattiyankaran attacks Caccantan, and before the king dies he sends his now pregnant wife away on a flying peacock machine. Exiled in a cremation ground, she gives birth to Civakan, the titular character. Civakan grows up in a merchant's home and becomes the epitome of a Jain hero. He precedes through a number of adventures, marrying numerous women over the course of these events and all the while carrying on an affair with a dancing girl. Eventually, Civakan returns to take vengeance on Kattiyankaran, winning back the throne. He then marries his eighth and final wife, a personification of omniscience. Soon after he becomes weary of worldly life and, after meeting with Mahavira, he renounces the world.
- ^ James Ryan, 1998. "Erotic Excess and Sexual Danger in the Civakacintamani." In Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, ed. John E. Cort. Albany: State University of New York Press, 68.
- Ryan, James. 1998. "Erotic Excess and Sexual Danger in the Civakacintamani." In Open
Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, ed. John E. Cort. Albany: State University of New York Press. 67-83.
- Ryan, James, trans. 2005. Civakacintamani: The Hero Civakan, the Gem that Fulfills All Wishes. Fremont, CA: Jain Publishing Company.
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