- Edward Gorey
Edward Gorey Birth name Edward St. John Gorey Born February 22, 1925
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Died April 15, 2000(aged 75)
Cape Cod Hospital, Hyannis, Massachusetts,
Nationality American Field Writer / Illustrator Training Mainly self-taught; briefly: The School of The Art Institute of Chicago Movement Literary nonsense, Surrealism Works Gashlycrumb Tinies, Doubtful Guest, Animation introducing "Mystery" on PBS Influenced by Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll, Tiger Lillies, Agatha Christie, Charles Dickens, Robert Musil, Vermeer, Balthus Influenced Daniel Handler, Tim Burton, Richard Sala Awards Tony Award (costume design); Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis (writing)
Edward St. John Gorey (February 22, 1925 – April 15, 2000) was an American writer and artist noted for his macabre illustrated books.
Edward St. John Gorey was born in Chicago. His parents, Helen Dunham (née Garvey) and Edward Lee Gorey, divorced in 1936 when he was 11, then remarried in 1952 when he was 27. One of his stepmothers was Corinna Mura (1909–65), a cabaret singer who had a small role in the classic film Casablanca as the woman playing the guitar while singing "La Marseillaise" at Rick's Café Américain. His father was briefly a journalist. Gorey's maternal great-grandmother, Helen St. John Garvey, was a popular 19th century greeting card writer and artist, from whom he claimed to have inherited his talents.
Gorey attended a variety of local grade schools and then the Francis W. Parker School. He spent 1944 to 1946 in the Army at Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, and then attended Harvard University from 1946 to 1950, where he studied French and roomed with poet Frank O'Hara.
He frequently stated that his formal art training was "negligible"; Gorey studied art for one semester at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1943.
From 1953 to 1960, he lived in New York City and worked for the Art Department of Doubleday Anchor, illustrating book covers and in some cases adding illustrations to the text. He illustrated works as diverse as Dracula by Bram Stoker, The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, and Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot. In later years he produced cover illustrations and interior artwork for many children's books by John Bellairs, as well as books begun by Bellairs and continued by Brad Strickland after Bellairs' death.
His first independent work, The Unstrung Harp, was published in 1953. He also published under pen names that were anagrams of his first and last names, such as Ogdred Weary, Dogear Wryde, Ms. Regera Dowdy, and dozens more. His books also feature the names Eduard Blutig ("Edward Gory"), a German language pun on his own name, and O. Müde (German for O. Weary).
The New York Times credits bookstore owner Andreas Brown and his store, the Gotham Book Mart, with launching Gorey's career: "it became the central clearing house for Mr. Gorey, presenting exhibitions of his work in the store's gallery and eventually turning him into an international celebrity." 
Gorey's illustrated (and sometimes wordless) books, with their vaguely ominous air and ostensibly Victorian and Edwardian settings, have long had a cult following. Gorey became particularly well-known through his animated introduction to the PBS series Mystery! in 1980, as well as his designs for the 1977 Broadway production of Dracula, for which he won a Tony Award for Best Costume Design. (He was also nominated for Best Scenic Design.)
Because of the settings and style of Gorey's work, many people have assumed he was British; in fact, he only left the U.S. once, for a visit to the Scottish Hebrides. In later years, he lived year-round in Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod, where he wrote and directed numerous evening-length entertainments, often featuring his own papier-mâché puppets, an ensemble known as Le Theatricule Stoique. The first of these productions, Lost Shoelaces, premiered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts on August 13, 1987. The last was "The White Canoe: an Opera Seria for Hand Puppets," for which Gorey wrote the libretto, with a score by the composer Daniel Wolf. Based on Thomas Moore's poem "The Lake of the Dismal Swamp," the opera was staged after Gorey's death and directed by his friend, neighbor, and longtime collaborator Carol Verburg, with a puppet stage made by his friends and neighbors the noted set designers Herbert Senn and Helen Pond. In the early 1970s, Gorey wrote an unproduced screenplay for a silent film, The Black Doll.
Gorey was noted for his fondness for ballet (for many years, he religiously attended all performances of the New York City Ballet), fur coats, tennis shoes, and cats, of which he had many. All figure prominently in his work. His knowledge of literature and films was unusually extensive, and in his interviews, he named Jane Austen, Agatha Christie, Francis Bacon, George Balanchine, Balthus, Louis Feuillade, Ronald Firbank, Lady Murasaki Shikibu, Robert Musil, Yasujiro Ozu, Anthony Trollope, and Johannes Vermeer as some of his favorite artists. Gorey was also an unashamed pop-culture junkie, avidly following soap operas and TV comedies like Petticoat Junction and Cheers, and he had particular affection for dark genre series like Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Batman: The Animated Series and The X-Files; he once told an interviewer that he so enjoyed the Batman series that it was influencing the visual style of one of his upcoming books. Gorey treated TV commercials as an art form in themselves, even taping his favorites for later study. Gorey was especially fond of movies, and for a time he wrote regular reviews for the Soho Weekly under the pseudonym Wardore Edgy.
After Gorey's death, one of his executors, Andreas Brown, turned up a large cache of unpublished work, some completed, some incomplete. Brown described the find as "Ample material for many future books and for plays based on his work."
Although Gorey's books were popular with children, he did not associate with children much and had no particular fondness for them. Gorey never married, professed to have little interest in romance, and never discussed any specific romantic relationships in interviews. In the book The Strange Case of Edward Gorey, published after Gorey's death, his friend Alexander Theroux reported that when Gorey was pressed on the matter of his sexual orientation, he said that even he was not sure whether he was gay or straight. When asked what his sexual preferences were in an interview, he said,
I'm neither one thing nor the other particularly. I am fortunate in that I am apparently reasonably undersexed or something...I've never said that I was gay and I've never said that I wasn't...what I'm trying to say is that I am a person before I am anything else....
From 1996 to his death in April 2000, the normally reclusive artist was the subject of a direct cinema-style documentary directed by Christopher Seufert. (As of 2011, the film and accompanying book have not been released.) He was interviewed on Tribute To Edward Gorey, an hour long community Public-access television cable show produced by artist and friend Joyce Kenney. He contributed his videos and personal thoughts. Edward served as judge in Yarmouth art shows and enjoyed activities at the local cable station, studying computer art and serving as cameraman on many Yarmouth shows. His Cape Cod house is called Elephant House and is the subject of a photography book titled Elephant House: Or, the Home of Edward Gorey, with photographs and text by Kevin McDermott. The house is now the Edward Gorey House Museum.
Gorey left the bulk of his estate to a charitable trust benefiting cats and dogs, as well as other species including bats and insects.
Gorey is typically described as an illustrator. His books can be found in the humor and cartoon sections of major bookstores, but books like The Object Lesson have earned serious critical respect as works of surrealist art. His experimentations — creating books that were wordless, books that were literally matchbox-sized, pop-up books, books entirely populated by inanimate objects — complicates matters still further. As Gorey told Richard Dyer of The Boston Globe, "Ideally, if anything [was] any good, it would be indescribable." Gorey classified his own work as literary nonsense, the genre made most famous by Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear.
In response to being called gothic, he stated, "If you're doing nonsense it has to be rather awful, because there'd be no point. I'm trying to think if there's sunny nonsense. Sunny, funny nonsense for children — oh, how boring, boring, boring. As Schubert said, there is no happy music. And that's true, there really isn't. And there's probably no happy nonsense, either." 
Gorey wrote more than 100 books, including:
- The Unstrung Harp, Brown and Company, 1953
- The Listing Attic, Brown and Company, 1954
- The Doubtful Guest, Doubleday, 1957
- The Object Lesson, Doubleday, 1958
- The Bug Book, Looking Glass Library, 1959
- The Fatal Lozenge: An Alphabet, Obolensky, 1960
- The Curious Sofa: A Pornographic Tale by Ogdred Weary, Astor-Honor, 1961
- The Hapless Child, Obolensky, 1961
- The Willowdale Handcar: Or, the Return of the Black Doll, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1962
- The Beastly Baby, Fantod Press, 1962
- The Vinegar Works: Three Volumes of Moral Instruction, Simon and Schuster, 1963
- The Gashlycrumb Tinies
- The Insect God
- The West Wing
- The Wuggly Ump, Lippincott, 1963
- The Nursery Frieze, Fantod Press, 1964
- The Sinking Spell, Obolensky, 1964
- The Remembered Visit: A Story Taken From Life, Simon and Schuster, 1965
- Three Books From Fantod Press (1), Fantod Press, 1966
- The Evil Garden
- The Inanimate Tragedy
- The Pious Infant
- The Gilded Bat, Cape, 1967
- The Utter Zoo, Meredith Press, 1967
- The Other Statue, Simon and Schuster, 1968
- The Blue Aspic, Meredith Press, 1968
- The Epiplectic Bicycle, Dodd and Mead, 1969
- The Iron Tonic: Or, A Winter Afternoon in Lonely Valley, Albondocani Press, 1969
- Three Books From The Fantod Press (2), Fantod Press, 1970
- The Chinese Obelisks: Fourth Alphabet
- Donald Has A Difficulty
- The Osbick Bird
- The Sopping Thursday, Gotham Book Mart, 1970
- Three Books From The Fantod Press (3), Fantod Press, 1971
- The Deranged Cousins
- The Eleventh Episode
- The Untitled Book
- The Awdrey-Gore Legacy, 1972
- Leaves From A Mislaid Album, Gotham Book Mart, 1972
- The Abandoned Sock, Fantod Press, 1972
- A Limerick, Salt-Works Press, 1973
- The Lost Lions, Fantod Press, 1973
- The Green Beads, Albondocani Press, 1978
- The Glorious Nosebleed: Fifth Alphabet, Mead, 1975
- The Grand Passion: A Novel, Fantod Press, 1976
- The Broken Spoke, Mead, 1976
- The Loathsome Couple, Mead, 1977
- Dancing Cats And Neglected Murderesses, Workman, 1980
- The Water Flowers, Congdon & Weed, 1982
- The Dwindling Party, Random House, 1982
- The Prune People, Albondocani Press, 1983
- Gorey Stories, 1983
- The Tunnel Calamity, Putnam's Sons, 1984
- The Eclectic Abecedarium, Adama Books, 1985
- The Prune People II, Albondocani Press, 1985
- The Improvable Landscape, Albondocani Press, 1986
- The Raging Tide: Or, The Black Doll's Imbroglio, Beaufort Books, 1987
- Q. R. V. (later retitled The Universal Solvent), Anne & David Bromer, 1989
- The Stupid Joke, Fantod Press, 1990
- The Fraught Settee, Fantod Press, 1990
- The Doleful Domesticity; Another Novel, Fantod Press, 1991
- The Retrieved Locket, Fantod Press, 1994
- The Unknown Vegetable, Fantod Press, 1995
- The Just Dessert: Thoughtful Alphabet XI, Fantod Press, 1997
- Deadly Blotter: Thoughtful Alphabet XVII, Fantod Press, 1997
- The Haunted Tea-Cosy: A Dispirited and Distasteful Diversion for Christmas, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1998
- The Headless Bust: A Melancholy Meditation on the False Millennium, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1999
Many of Gorey's works were published obscurely and are difficult to find (and priced accordingly). However, the following four omnibus editions collect much of his material. Because his original books are rather short, these editions may contain 15 or more in each volume.
- Amphigorey, 1972 (ISBN 0-399-50433-8) - contains The Unstrung Harp, The Listing Attic, The Doubtful Guest, The Object-Lesson, The Bug Book, The Fatal Lozenge, The Hapless Child, The Curious Sofa, The Willowdale Handcar, The Gashlycrumb Tinies, The Insect God, The West Wing, The Wuggly Ump, The Sinking Spell, and The Remembered Visit
- Amphigorey Too, 1975 (ISBN 0-399-50420-6) - contains The Beastly Baby, The Nursery Frieze, The Pious Infant, The Evil Garden, The Inanimate Tragedy, The Gilded Bat, The Iron Tonic, The Osbick Bird, The Chinese Obelisks (bis), The Deranged Cousins, The Eleventh Episode, [The Untitled Book], The Lavender Leotard, The Disrespectful Summons, The Abandoned Sock, The Lost Lions, Story for Sara [by Alphonse Allais], The Salt Herring [by Charles Cros], Leaves from a Mislaid Album, and A Limerick
- Amphigorey Also, 1983 (ISBN 0-15-605672-0) - contains The Utter Zoo, The Blue Aspic, The Epiplectic Bicycle, The Sopping Thursday, The Grand Passion, Les Passementeries Horribles, The Eclectic Abecedarium, L'Heure bleue, The Broken Spoke, The Awdrey-Gore Legacy, The Glorious Nosebleed, The Loathsome Couple, The Green Beads, Les Urnes Utiles, The Stupid Joke, The Prune People, and The Tuning Fork
- Amphigorey Again, 2006 (ISBN 0-15-101107-9) - contains The Galoshes of Remorse, Signs of Spring, Seasonal Confusion, Random Walk, Category, The Other Statue, 10 Impossible Objects (abridged), The Universal Solvent (abridged), Scenes de Ballet, Verse Advice, The Deadly Blotter, Creativity, The Retrieved Locket, The Water Flowers, The Haunted Tea-Cosy, Christmas Wrap-Up, The Headless Bust, The Just Dessert, The Admonitory Hippopotamus, Neglected Murderesses, Tragedies Topiares, The Raging Tide, The Unknown Vegetable, Another Random Walk, Serious Life: A Cruise, Figbash Acrobate, La Malle Saignante, and The Izzard Book
He also illustrated more than 50 works by other authors, including Samuel Beckett, Edward Lear, John Bellairs, H. G. Wells, Alain-Fournier, Charles Dickens, T. S. Eliot, Hilaire Belloc, Muriel Spark, Florence Parry Heide, John Updike, and John Ciardi.
Gorey was very fond of word games, particularly anagrams. He wrote many of his books under pseudonyms that were usually anagrams of his own name (most famously Ogdred Weary). Some of these are listed below, with the corresponding book title(s). Eduard Blutig is also a word game: "Blutig" is German (the language from which these two books were purportedly translated) for "bloody," which is a synonym for "gory."
- Ogdred Weary - The Curious Sofa, The Beastly Baby
- Mrs. Regera Dowdy - The Pious Infant
- Eduard Blutig - The Evil Garden (translated from Der Böse Garten by Mrs. Regera Dowdy), The Tuning Fork (translated from Der Zeitirrthum by Mrs. Regera Dowdy)
- Raddory Gewe - The Eleventh Episode
- Dogear Wryde - The Broken Spoke/Cycling Cards
- E. G. Deadworry - The Awdrey-Gore Legacy
- D. Awdrey-Gore - The Toastrack Enigma, The Blancmange Tragedy, The Postcard Mystery, The Pincushion Affair, The Toothpaste Murder, The Dustwrapper Secret (Note: These books, although attributed to Awdrey-Gore in Gorey's book The Awdrey-Gore Legacy, were not really written.)
- Edward Pig - The Untitled Book
- Wardore Edgy
- Madame Groeda Weyrd - The Fantod Deck
Gorey has become an iconic figure in the Goth subculture. Events themed on his works and decorated in his characteristic style are common in the more Victorian-styled elements of the subculture, notably the Edwardian costume balls held annually in San Francisco and Los Angeles, which include performances based on his works. The "Edwardian" in this case refers less to the Edwardian period of history than to Gorey himself, whose characters are depicted as wearing fashion styles ranging from those of the mid-19th century to the 1930s.
Director Mark Romanek's music video for the Nine Inch Nails song "The Perfect Drug" was designed specifically to look like a Gorey book, with familiar Gorey elements including oversized urns, topiary plants, and glum, pale characters in full Edwardian costume. Also, Caitlín R. Kiernan has published a short story titled "A Story for Edward Gorey" (Tales of Pain and Wonder, 2000), which features Gorey's black doll.
A more direct link to Gorey's influence on the music world is evident in The Gorey End, an album recorded in 2003 by the Tiger Lillies and the Kronos Quartet. This album was a collaboration with Gorey, who liked previous work by The Tiger Lillies so much that he sent them a large box of his unpublished work, which were then adapted and turned into songs. Gorey died before hearing the finished album.
In 1976 jazz composer Michael Mantler recorded an album called The Hapless Child (Watt/ECM) with Robert Wyatt, Terje Rypdal, Carla Bley and Jack DeJohnette. It contains musical adaptations of The Sinking Spell, The Object Lesson, The Insect God, The Doubtful Guest, The Remembered Visit and The Hapless Child. The three last songs have also been published on his 1987 Live album with Jack Bruce, Rick Fenn and Nick Mason.
In the last few decades of his life, Gorey merchandise became quite popular, with stuffed dolls, cups, stickers, posters, and other items available at malls around the United States.
The Jim Henson Company announced plans to produce a feature film based on The Doubtful Guest to be directed by Brad Peyton. The release date is unknown. There has not been much information since the announcement in 2007.
- Charles Addams, contemporary American cartoonist with similar macabre style
- ^ Kelley, Tina (April 16, 2000), "Edward Gorey, Eerie Illustrator And Writer, 75", The New York Times, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C05E1D81731F935A25757C0A9669C8B63&sec=&spon=&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink
- ^ Ancestry of Edward Gorey
- ^ Gussow, Mel (April 17, 2000), "Edward Gorey, Artist and Author Who Turned the Macabre Into a Career, Dies at 75", The New York Times, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9500E1DE1431F934A25757C0A9669C8B63&sec=&spon=&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink
- ^ a b "The Data File: Gorey Discoveries", Locus, December 2000, p.11.
- ^ Gorey, Edward (2002), Ascending Peculiarity: Edward Gorey on Edward Gorey, Harvest Books, ISBN 978-0156012911
- ^ McDermott, Kevin. Elephant House: Or, the Home of Edward Gorey. Pomegranate Communications (2003). ISBN 0764924958 and ISBN 978-0764924958
- ^ Schiff, Stephen. “Edward Gorey and the Tao of Nonsense.” The New Yorker, November 9, 1992: 84-94, p. 89.
- ^ Interview with Mark Romanek, in the currently unreleased documentary by Christopher Seufert.
- ^ The Tiger Lillies' webpage for this album; EMI 7243 5 57513 2 4
- The World of Edward Gorey, Clifford Ross and Karen Wilkin, Henry N. Abrams Inc., 1996 (ISBN 0-8109-3988-6). Interview and monograph.
- Ascending Peculiarity, ed. Karen Wilkin, Harcourt Inc., 2001 (ISBN 0-15-100504-4). Selected interviews from 1973 to 1999, plus miscellaneous quotes, illustrations, and photographs.
- Elephant House: Or, the Home of Edward Gorey, Kevin McDermott, Foreword by John Updike, Pomegranate, 2003 (ISBN 0-7649-2495-8). Photographic study of Gorey's home as it was at the time of his death. Includes biographical text of his life on Cape Cod, plus miscellaneous quotes and illustrations.
- The Strange Case of Edward Gorey, Alexander Theroux, Fantagraphics Books, 2000 (ISBN 1-56097-385-4). Biography and reminiscence by Theroux, a friend of Gorey.
- The Gorey Details. BBC Radio program compiled and presented by Philip Glassborow, including interviews with Andreas Brown of the Gotham Book Mart, actor Frank Langella (star of Gorey's Dracula on Broadway), Alison Lurie, Alex Hand, Jack Braginton Smith, Katherine Kellgren and featuring David Suchet as the voice of Gorey.
- "All The Gorey Details", The Independent, by Philip Glassborow, May 2003.
- Edward Gorey House Official Site of the Edward Gorey House and Gorey Trust
- Mystery! Edward Gorey interview from pbs.org
- Selected Gorey works from lunaea.com
- Works by or about Edward Gorey in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Edward Gorey in WorldCat Identities
- Elephant House: The Edward Gorey House contents photographed after his death by Kevin McDermott
- Edward Gorey Documentary Clips
- Edward Gorey Bibliography
- Edward Gorey showcase Gorey fan site
- Goreyography All about Gorey
- Edward Gorey Book Covers
- Costume design from Dracula in Swann Galleries Auction catalogue
- Edward Gorey Doubleday Anchor paperbacks
Tony Award for Best Costume Design (1976–2004)
Florence Klotz (1976) · Theoni V. Aldredge (1977) · Edward Gorey (1978) · Franne Lee (1979) · Theoni V. Aldredge (1980) · Willa Kim (1981) · William Ivey Long (1982) · John Napier (1983) · Theoni V. Aldredge (1984) · Florence Klotz (1985) · Patricia Zipprodt (1986) · John Napier (1987) · Maria Björnson (1988) · Claudio Segovio / Hector Orezzoli (1989) · Santo Loquasto (1990) · Willa Kim (1991) · William Ivey Long (1992) · Florence Klotz (1993) · Ann Hould-Ward (1994) · Florence Klotz (1995) · Roger Kirk (1996) · Judith Dolan (1997) · Julie Taymor (1998) · Lez Brotherston (1999) · Martin Pakledinaz (2000) · William Ivey Long (2001) · Martin Pakledinaz (2002) · William Ivey Long (2003) · Susan Hilferty (2004)
Complete list · (1947–1975) · (1976–2004) · (2005-present (Play)) · (2005-present (Musical)) World Fantasy Award for Best Artist 1975–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–present
Charles Vess (2010) ·
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Edward Gorey — (in seinem Haus, 1999) Edward St. John Gorey (* 22. Februar 1925 in Chicago; † 15. April 2000 in Hyannis, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Autor und Illustrator. Bekannt ist er für seine schwarzweiß schraffierten Zeichnungen, mit denen er … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edward Gorey — Edward Saint John Gorey, né à Chicago en 1925 et décédé à Cap Cod en 2000 est un illustrateur américain. Il commence une carrière prolifique en 1953 avec The Unstrung Harp, sur le travail d un écrivain. C est avec son animation de générique pour… … Wikipédia en Français
Edward Gorey — Edward St. John Gorey (22 de febrero de 1925 15 de abril de 2000) fue un artista notable por sus dibujos torcidos y macabros. Nacido en Chicago, asistió a varias escuelas primarias locales y luego al Francis W. Parker School, durante 1944 y 1946… … Wikipedia Español
Edward Gorey — Edward St. John Gorey (22 de febrero, 1925 15 de abril, 2000) fue un artista notable por sus dibujos torcidos y macabros. Nacido en Chicago, asistió a varias escuelas primarias locales y luego al Francis W. Parker School, durante 1944 y 1946… … Enciclopedia Universal
Gorey (Begriffsklärung) — Gorey ist der Name folgender Orte: Gorey, Stadt im Südosten Irlands Gorey (Jersey), Dorf auf der Kanalinsel Jersey Gorey ist der Familienname von Edward Gorey (1925–2000), US amerikanischer Autor und Illustrator … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edward Bawden — CBE RA (1903 ndash;1989) was a British painter, illustrator and graphic artist.During the Second World War, Edward Bawden served as one of the official war artists for Britain. He made many evocative watercolor paintings recording the war effort… … Wikipedia
Gorey — This article is about the town in Ireland. For the artist, see Edward Gorey. For the town in Jersey, see Gorey, Jersey. Gorey Guaire Town … Wikipedia
Edward — /ed weuhrd/, n. 1. Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall ( The Black Prince ), 1330 76, English military leader (son of Edward III). 2. Lake, a lake in central Africa, between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a source of the Nile.… … Universalium
Edward — (as used in expressions) Abbey, Edward Acheson, Edward Goodrich Acton (de Aldenham), John Emerich Edward Dahlberg Acton, 1 barón Albee, Edward (Franklin) Edward Teach Bax, Sir Arnold (Edward Trevor) Bellamy, Edward Bernays, Edward L. Charles… … Enciclopedia Universal
Gorey — [ gɔrɪ], Edward Saint John, amerikanischer Zeichner, * Chicago (Illinois) 22. 2. 1925, ✝ auf der Halbinsel Cape Cod (Massachusetts) 15. 4. 2000; zeichnete mit feinem Strich groteske Szenen voll schwarzen Humors, meist in viktorianischen… … Universal-Lexikon