- Road running
Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running). These events would be classified as long distance according to athletics terminology, with distances typically ranging from 5 kilometers to 42.2 kilometers in the marathon. They may involve large numbers of runners or wheelchair entrants. Road running is part of a group of road events known as "road races". Road running is one aspect in the overall sport of athletics.
Road running may offer those involved a range of challenges and interests such as dealing with hills, sharp bends, varied surfaces, inclement weather, and involvement in a large group. Aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to use oxygen, is the biggest factor contributing to success.
The impact of running on roads puts more stress on the feet, knees and lower back than running on dirt or grass. It can compensate by providing a consistent, level surface. It may put less strain on the Achilles tendon.
Race courses are usually held on the streets of major cities and towns, but can be on any road. The IAAF recognizes nine common distances for road races: 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), 15 kilometres (9.3 mi), 20 kilometres (12 mi), half-marathon (21.097 km or 13.1 mi), 25 kilometres (16 mi), 30 kilometres (19 mi), marathon (42.195 km or 26.2 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), and Ekiden marathon relay. Other common distances include 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), 8 kilometres (5.0 mi), 12 kilometres (7.5 mi), and 10 miles (16 km).
Some major events have unique distances. The "Round the Bays" run in Auckland, New Zealand is 8.4 kilometres (5.2 mi); the Falmouth Road Race in Falmouth, Cape Cod is 7.1 miles (11.4 km); "City to Surf" in Sydney, Australia is 14 kilometres (8.7 mi); Honolulu's "Great Aloha Run" is 8.15 miles (13.12 km); the "King Island Imperial 20" is 32 kilometres (20 mi) long; and the "Charleston Distance Run" in Charleston, West Virginia is 15 miles (24 km).
Most road race courses have a certificate of course accuracy which confirms that they have been measured with an accuracy of better than 0.1%, i.e. to within 10 m for a 10 km race. It is common for formally certified courses to be intentionally lengthened by one metre per km to ensure that they are not short. Measurement is normally done by means of a calibrated bicycle fitted with a Jones Counter. If a world record is set on a race course, the course is independently remeasured to verify that it was the correct length.
Running that covers a distance farther than a marathon is called ultrarunning; the event is an ultramarathon. Such events can be measured in distance (for example, 100 kilometers) or by time (whoever has run the farthest after 24 hours). Examples include the London to Brighton run in England which is just over 54 miles (87 km), the Comrades Marathon run between Pietermaritzburg and Durban in South Africa which is about 89 kilometres (55 mi), and the Badwater Ultramarathon between Death Valley and Mount Whitney in the United States which is 135 miles (217 km) (with a net elevation gain of over 4,500 meters, almost 15,000 feet).
Beyond the ultramarathon lie the multiday and stage races. These events include current events such as the Self-Transcendence 6 & 10 day and 3100 mile races in New York, Trans-America, Trans-Gaul, Trans-Korea, Trans-Europe race and the cross Germany race - the Deutschlandlauf. In these events runners have to complete as many miles as possible in the given time limit - the go-as-you-please style or have to complete a given distance in a set time such as the daily stages of the trans-country races where cut-offs are enforced.
Road running is unique among athletic events because in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to participate in the same event as members of running clubs and even current world-class champions. Though often race times are recorded manually by race organizers, sometimes road races feature electronic timing using transponders.
Road races are often community-wide events that highlight or raise money for an issue or project. In the USA, Susan G. Komen's Race for the Cure is held nationwide to raise breast cancer awareness. This race is also run in Germany, Italy and Puerto Rico. Similarly, Race for Life holds races throughout the UK to raise money for Cancer Research. First person "race reports" frequently appear on the Dead Runners Society electronic mailing list. Dublin, Ireland's Women's Mini-Marathon is said to be the largest all-female event of its kind in the world.
Governing body and international organisations
The international governing body for road racing is the IAAF. National governing bodies which are affiliated to the IAAF are responsible for road races held in their country. Of the thousands of road races held each year, 238 races, including some premier ones, are members of the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS). Many race organizers (or the running clubs which conduct the races) are members of the Road Runners Club of America. In addition, the USA Track & Field plays a role in selecting representatives for certain international competitions under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978.
Competitors from around the world participate in what are dubbed the "elite" races for cash prizes. Kenyans and Ethiopians are renowned for their skill and it is rare for a race's top finishers not to include competitors from these countries. Elite level road running series include the World Marathon Majors, the Great Run series, and IAAF Road Race Label Events.
- Fell running
- Cross country running
- List of largest running events
- Track running
- Trail running
- Association of Road Racing Statisticians
- Road Runners Club of America
- Running USA
- Road Runners Club UK
- British Association of Road Races
- New York Road Runners
- Road running shoes
- Race for life
Racing RunningTrack runningRoad runningOff-road runningOther Orienteering Bicycle racing Animal racing Swimming MotorsportRed Bull Air Race World Championship · Schneider TrophyMotorboat racingOther Multi-sport racing List of forms of racing Events in the sport of athletics Track and field · Road running · Race walking · Cross country running Track Sprints Hurdles50 m · 55 m · 60 m · 100 m · 110 m · 400 m Middle distance Long distance Relays Field Throws Jumps Combined Road Running Walking10 km · 20 km · 50 km Multiday race · Ultramarathon · Wheelchair racing · Backward running
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
2006 IAAF World Road Running Championships — Infobox World Road Running date = 2006 10 08 country = Hungary city = Debrecen length = 20 km indprize1 = 30,000 indprize2 = 15,000 indprize3 = 10,000 indprize4 = 7,000 indprize5 = 5,000 indprize6 = 3,000 tmprize1 = 15,000 tmprize2 = 12,000… … Wikipedia
IAAF World Road Running Championships — The IAAF World Road Running Championships was a world championship running competition from the IAAF. There was one men s race and one women s race, both run over the distance of 20 kilometres in the 2006 event, and half marathon distance in 2007 … Wikipedia
2007 IAAF World Road Running Championships — Infobox World Road Running date = 2007 10 14 country = Italy city = Udine length = 21.097 kilometres (half marathon) indprize1 = 30,000 indprize2 = 15,000 indprize3 = 10,000 indprize4 = 7,000 indprize5 = 5,000 indprize6 = 3,000 tmprize1 = 15,000… … Wikipedia
IAAF World Road Running Championships — Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Siegerliste 2 Medaillenränge 2.1 Halbmarathon WM 1992 2.2 Halbmarathon WM 1993 2.3 Halbmarathon WM 1994 2.4 … Deutsch Wikipedia
World Road Running Championships — Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Siegerliste 2 Medaillenränge 2.1 Halbmarathon WM 1992 2.2 Halbmarathon WM 1993 2.3 Halbmarathon WM 1994 2.4 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Road racing — can be a term involving road running, road bicycle races, or automobile races. As contemplated in this article, the term will be treated as it relates to motorsport, specifically, automobile racing and motorcycle racing. Types of road coursesRoad … Wikipedia
Running — Runner redirects here. For other uses, see Runner (disambiguation). This article is about the type of locomotion in humans. For running in horses, see Horse gait. For locomotion in dogs, see Gait (dog). For general locomotion, see Gait. For other … Wikipedia
Road Runners Club of America — The Road Runners Club of America (RRCA) is a trade association of local running clubs and other running related organization, which seeks to promote grass roots running and fitness in the United States.Infobox Organization2 name= Road Runners… … Wikipedia
Road debris — Debris in a cycle lane Road debris, a form of road hazard, is debris on or off a road. Road debris includes substances, materials, and objects that are foreign to the normal roadway environment. Debris may be produced by vehicular or nonvehicular … Wikipedia
Road skating — is the sport of skating (inline skating or roller skating) on roads, much like road cycling.Roadskaters often skate in tight packs, drafting each other and sharing the lead, which allows a pack to travel faster than an individual skater. The… … Wikipedia