Minden, Louisiana


Minden, Louisiana
City of Minden
City
The combined Minden City Hall and Convention Center opened in 1970.
Country United States
State Louisiana
Parish Webster
Elevation 253 ft (77.1 m)
Coordinates 32°37′0″N 93°17′0″W / 32.616667°N 93.283333°W / 32.616667; -93.283333
Area 12.0 sq mi (31.1 km2)
 - land 11.9 sq mi (31 km2)
 - water 0.1 sq mi (0 km2), 0.83%
Population 13,027 (2000)
Density 1,095.2 / sq mi (422.9 / km2)
Established 1836
Mayor Bill Robertson
Timezone CST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 71055
Area code 318
Location of Minden in Louisiana
Location of Louisiana in the United States
Website: http://www.mindenusa.com
Downtown Minden welcome sign on Main Street
The Minden Coca-Cola Bottling Plant is a distribution center on Pine Street across from Minden Cemetery.

Minden is a city in the American state of Louisiana. It serves as the parish seat of Webster Parish[1] and is located twenty-eight miles east of Shreveport, the seat of Caddo Parish. The population, which has been stable since 1960, was 13,027 at the 2000 census. It has possessed a post office since 1839.[2]

Minden is the principal city of the Minden Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of the larger Shreveport-Bossier City-Minden Combined Statistical Area.

The community has been served by a newspaper since the 1850s, and the city's present publication, Minden Press-Herald, which has its office in a building previously occupied by a supermarket on Gleason Street south of Broadway Street, dates as a daily to July 18, 1966, but was earlier published as two weekly papers, Minden Press on Mondays and Minden Herald on Thursdays. For a time there was also the Webster Signal-Tribune.[3]

Contents

Geography

Minden has an elevation of 253 feet (77.1 m)[4]. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.0 square miles (31 km2), of which, 11.9 square miles (31 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.75%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 13,027 people, 5,166 households, and 3,430 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,095.2 people per square mile (423.0/km²). There were 5,795 housing units at an average density of 487.2 per square mile (188.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 46.34% White, 52.17% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.61% of the population.

There were 5,166 households, out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 22.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.6% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the city of Minden, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years, higher than the state median age of 34.0 years. For every 100 females there were 84.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,175, and the median income for a family was $31,477. Males had a median income of $28,401 versus $19,199 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,114. About 21.0% of families and 26.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.3% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over.

History

Early settlement

Among the first settlers in the Minden area was Newitt Drew, a Welshman originally from Virginia, who built a gristmill and sawmill on Dorcheat Bayou in south Webster Parish in what became the since defunct Overton community. Minden itself was established in 1836 by Charles H. Veeder, a native of Schenectady, New York, who named it for the city of Minden in Germany.[6] Veeder left Minden during the California Gold Rush and spent the rest of his life practicing law in Bakersfield, California.[7]

A year before Veeder arrived, a group from Phillipsburg (now Monaca, Pennsylvania), led by the Countess Leon, settled seven miles (11 km) northeast of Minden in what was then Claiborne Parish. For nearly four decades, this Germantown Colony operated on a communal basis.[8] It was dispersed in 1871, when Webster Parish was severed from Claiborne Parish.[9] The "Countess" moved to Hot Springs, Arkansas, where she died in 1881.[8]

One of three Utopian Society settlements in this area, the Germantown Colony was the most successful and lasted the longest, having peaked at fifty to sixty pioneers but usually with fewer than forty followers. The settlement had been planned by the countess’ husband, Bernhard Müller, known as the Count von Leon. He died of yellow fever on August 29, 1834, at Grand Ecore, four miles (6 km) from Natchitoches, before he reached Webster Parish.[10] Leon and his followers attempted to build an earthly utopia, socialist in practice, while awaiting for the Second Coming of Christ. For his religious views, Leon had been exiled from Germany. He intended to plant the settlement in Webster Parish to coincide with the latitude of Jerusalem, 31 degrees, 47 minutes. The colonists worshiped under oak trees at the center of the colony. They supported themselves from farming, with a concentration on cotton.[8] The settlement is preserved at the Germantown Colony and Museum. A second museum in Minden, the Dorcheat Historical Association Museum, named for Dorcheat Bayou, is located downtown at 116 Pearl Street. It preserves the cultural history of the city and parish from the 19th century.

Civil War

Statue of a Confederate soldier at the western end of Jacqueline Park in Minden

During the American Civil War, a large Confederate encampment, which housed some fifteen thousand soldiers was located east of Minden. Minden was a supply depot for the troops. Some thirty Confederate soldiers who died in the Battle of Mansfield and another engagement at Pleasant Hill are buried in the historic Minden Cemetery located off Pine Street. A modern cemetery, Gardens of Memory, opened in 1957 off the Lewisville Road north of town.

In 1862, Confederate General Richard Taylor, son of Zachary Taylor, issued orders to round up deserters. According to the historian John D. Winters of Louisiana Tech University, near Minden were seen "many robust-looking men claiming to be 'discharged soldiers.'" General Taylor reported that a "'large number of persons liable to military service . . . , deserters, enrolled conscripts who have failed to report, between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five, are to be found throughout the state.' He ordered militia officers and parish sheriffs to arrest all men who could not prove legal exemption or absence from military service because of furlough or parole. Liberal rewards were offered for the apprehension of such men."[11]

Governor Henry Watkins Allen tried to make the state self-sufficient during the war. A factory for the manufacture of cotton and wool cards was erected at Minden and in full operation by the end of the war.[12] In 1864-1985, divisions of General Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac, hero at Mansfield, and Maj. Gen. John H. Forney established winter quarters near Minden.[13]

Coldest state temperature

On February 13, 1890, Minden recorded the state's all-time coldest temperature, minus-16 degrees during the height of the Great Blizzard. Another minus-16 reading was recording in Minden on February 2, 1899.[14] The humid subtropical climate, however, is usually mild in winter and mostly hot in summer.

Will Life

William L. "Will" Life (June 23, 1887-October 1972) was from 1925 until his death the owner of the large Webb Hardware store in downtown Minden. A former member of the Minden City Council, who was defeated in 1938,[15] Life was sometimes known as the "father of modern Minden" because of his civic leadership.[16]

Life attended the former Minden Male Academy, which was located at what is now Academy Park. He graduated from Minden High School in 1905 and was a member of the 1904 basketball team. He resided in Minden his entire eighty-five years except during World War I, when he served for three years in the United States Army Signal Corps. On June 23, 1972, four months before Life's death, Mayor Tom Colten proclaimed "Will Life Day" in Minden. He is interred at Minden Cemetery.[16]

1930s

During the Great Depression, one of the two Minden banks failed. Five banks now exist, Minden Building and Loan, Capital One, Regions, Citizens, and Richland State. On May 1, 1933, a tornado destroyed some 20 percent of the residences in Minden. Thereafter a fire destroyed much of the business district and many homes. During the national bank holiday in 1933, the funds of both Minden citizens and businesses were frozen, making recovery from the tornado and the fire more difficult. Later, a summer flood destroyed a third of the crops in the area. Because of these quadruple tragedies, 1933 has been called the "Year of Disaster" in Minden.<[17][18]

Ben F. Turner, Sr. (1883–1934), was the Louisiana and Arkansas Railway express agent in Minden as well as the volunteer fire chief. During the 1933 fire, he sustained a heart attack and hence died the next year of cardiac failure. Oddly, Ben Turner's grandfather had died in 1835 while he was fighting a fire at a brush arbor meeting in Georgia. Ben Turner's son, Harold Martin "Happy" Turner (1911–1988), was a well-known restaurant owner and civic booster in Minden.

Larry B. Hunter (1896–1971) and his wife, the former Gladys Powell (1899–1973), a native of Sibley, for decades operated the Coca-Cola Bottling Company outlet in Minden. While soft drinks were produced at the facility into the 1960s, the facility is now a distribution center. It is located across from Minden Cemetery. The Hunters also subsidized the Minden Redbirds semi-professional baseball team and built the former Hunter's recreation complex, which served the youth of Minden from 1940 to 1965. In 1950, Gladys Hunter, became the first woman ever to be elected to the Webster Parish School Board, where she served two six-year terms.

Artist Ben Earl Looney was born in the Yellow Pine community in south Webster Parish and graduated from Minden High School in 1923. He taught art throughout the United States in a career from the 1920s until his death in Lafayette in 1981.

Minden businesses

Minden has a large number of businesses and an active Chamber of Commerce, which maintains offices near the intersection of Broadway and the Sibley Road. Two former executive directors of the chamber were elected mayor, Tom Colten in 1966 and Paul A. Brown in 1989.

In the mid-20th century, Minden had two film theaters and a third drive-in facility. To promote the film industry, theater owners Edgar Beach Hands, Jr. (1905–1972), and Ruth Cheshire Lowe in 1951 hosted several film stars in a visit to the city. One was a future U.S. senator from California, George Murphy. Another was Robert Stack of the later ABC television series The Untouchables. Jesse White, best known for Maytag commercials, also visited.[19] By the late 1970s, Minden had no theaters. However, in the 21st century, several motion pictures have been filmed in the city and the surrounding areas of Webster Parish.

The Webster Parish Courthouse, completed in 1953, is located a few yards west of its former location, which in the early 1970s became a parking lot for the Minden City Hall/Civic Center.

Minden is the city of license for CW affiliate KPXJ, Channel 21.

Education

Northwest Louisiana Technical College has been located since the 1950s in a residential section off Constable Street in Minden but is scheduled for removal to a tract of land near Interstate 20.
Renovated Minden High School (2007) on College Street

Minden is served by the Webster Parish School Board, an elected body which maintains administrative offices on Sheppard Street. Minden High School, located just north of the downtown, completed major renovoation in 2007. The original school dates to the turn of the 20th century.

There is a vocational technical school in Minden, Northwest Louisiana Technical College, located on Constable Street near the sites of the Webster Parish fairgrounds and Griffith Stadium, a baseball field, where the former Minden Redbirds semi-professional team played. Governor Earl Kemp Long had included a trade school for Webster Parish in his 1948 platform, and State Senator Drayton R. Boucher and State Representative C.W. Thompson set about getting the initial $175,000 in funding through the legislature.[20]

The facility opened in the early 1950s and has since undergone several renovations, including a $361,000 expansion in 1966, when its enrollment was 170. A lunch room, science room, library, and business department were then added to the campus. A program for training Licensed Practical Nurses began in 1967.[21] Northwest Technical College will be relocated to a new and expanded site off the Interstate 20 service road.

Elementary schools include E.S. Richardson, J.L. Jones, and J.E. Harper schools. The former William G. Stewart Elementary School will close at the end of the 2010-2011 academic year under an economic realignment package approved by the Webster Parish School Board.

The middle school is located at the site of the former historically black Webster High School, which closed in 1975, with desegregation into Minden High School. The previous junior high school, Theresa M. Lowe Junior High School located near the technical college, was closed after desegregation and converted into an alternative school. Theresa Lowe graduated from Rayville High School in Rayville, the seat of Richland Parish in northeastern Louisiana and received her Bachelor of Science degree from Louisiana Tech University in Ruston. She was a long-time teacher of the seventh grade at the former Minden Junior High School and a leader in the renamed Louisiana Association of Educators.[22]

There is also the private Glenbrook School off the Lewisville Road toward Shongaloo, which began within the First Baptist Church in 1970.

The Louisiana Missionary Baptist Institute and Seminary, which offers bachelor's, master's, and doctor of theology degrees, is located off the Homer Road in eastern Minden. The theologically conservative institution was opened in 1952 by the pastor L. L. Clover (1902–1975) of Calvary Missionary Baptist Church.

Notable residents

Politics

  • Jack Batton (1913–1996), mayor of Minden, 1978–1982; former city council member; merchant and civic leader, Democrat.
  • William Jasper Blackburn (1820–1899), mayor of Minden, 1855–1856; newspaper publisher; later U.S. Representative (1868–1869), Republican.[23]
  • Bruce M. Bolin (born 1950), state representative from Webster Parish, 1978–1990); state district court judge, since 1991, Democrat[24]
  • James E. Bolin (1914–2002), state representative, 1940–1944; state district court judge, 1952–1960; Louisiana appeal court judge, 1960–1978, Democrat.[25]
  • Jesse L. Boucher (1912–2004), real estate developer and former mayor of Springhill, taught at Minden High School in the latter 1930s, Democrat.[26]
  • Parey Branton (1918-2011), Shongaloo native and resident, represented Webster Parish in the Louisiana House from 1960–1972, Democrat.[27]
  • Henry L. Bridges (1874–1939), mayor (1928–1932 and 1934–1936)[28]
  • John Calhoun Brown (1879–1964), interim mayor (1942–1944), Democrat.[29]
  • J. Frank Colbert (1882–1949), mayor (1944–1946), state representative (1920–1925), and member of the Webster Parish Police Jury (1912–1920), Democrat.[30]
  • Tom Colten (1922–2004) served from as the first Republican mayor, 1966-1974. He later headed the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development under three governors of both parties.[31]
  • Floyd D. Culbertson, Jr. (1908-1989), mayor from 1940-1942[32]
  • John T. David (1897–1974) was mayor of Minden from 1946–1955, when he resigned after two misdemeanor convictions for bootlegging. He was thereafter elected to three terms on the Webster Parish Police Jury, Democrat.[33]
  • Everett Doerge (1935-1998) was a former educator and former Louisiana House member, 1991-1998. He was succeeded by his widow, Jean M. Doerge, also a former educator, a Democrat, and a native of Natchitoches Parish. She has since been reelected twice without opposition. Everett Doerge won the post in the 1991 general election by defeating the Republican Eugene S. Eason of Springhill.[34]
  • Harmon Caldwell Drew (1889-1950), District and circuit court judge, Democrat.
  • Harmon Drew, Jr. (born 1946), Court of Appeals Judge (born 1946), Democrat.[35]
  • Richard Cleveland Drew (1848–1919), District and circuit court judge, Democrat.
  • R. Harmon Drew, Sr. (1917–1995), former municipal judge and a Democratic state representative[36]
  • Richard Maxwell Drew (1822–1850), district court judge, state representative[37]
Fred Thomas "Tony" Elzen, a former member of the Minden City Council, as the grand marshal of the Minden Christmas parade, 2007; an annual golf tournament named for Elzen, a retired merchant, is held each summer in Minden.

Sports

Turner's Pond in Minden as photographed from Lakeview United Methodist Church
Griffith Memorial Stadium is named for B. F. Griffith, Sr., who served as the Webster Parish sheriff from 1900-1908. It hosts baseball games.
The Minden Recreation Center off Interstate 20

Others

  • Gene Austin was a singer, sometimes called "the first crooner".
  • Alan Bean, U.S. astronaut lived in Minden as a child while his father was employed there by the United States Soil Conservation Service.
  • James Burton, a popular guitarist who once performed with Ricky Nelson and Elvis Presley, was born in Dubberly, Louisiana in 1939 and raised in Minden until he was ten years of age.
  • L. L. Clover (1902–1975) was a pastor who founded the Louisiana Missionary Baptist Institute and Seminary in Minden and authored the theological study Evil Spirits Intellectualism and Logic.
  • Barbara Colley (born 1947) is a romance and mystery novelist in New Orleans who grew up in Minden.
Memorial on Summit Street in Minden to United States Army soldier Joshua Madden, the first soldier from Minden killed in the Iraq War

Hank Williams married in Minden

Country singer Hank Williams, Sr., married Billie Jean Jones Eshliman in Minden on October 18, 1952. The next day, the couple repeated the vows in two separate public ceremonies. Less than three months later, Williams was dead. A judge ruled that the wedding was not legal because Billie Jean's divorce did not become final until eleven days after she had married Williams. Thereafter, Billie Jean married another singing giant, Johnny Horton. Horton died in 1960 and is buried in Hillcrest Cemetery in Haughton in Bossier Parish.[66]

Minden gallery

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ "Post Offices in Webster Parish, Louisiana". http://www.postalhistory.com/postoffices.asp?task=display&state=LA&county=Webster&searchtext=&pagenum=1. 
  3. ^ Minden Press-Herald, July 18, 1966
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Marietta LeBreton, "Bayou Dorcheat" in The Rivers and Bayous of Louisiana by Edwin Adams Davis. http://books.google.com/books?id=N6a-9ZHqz8oC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=dorcheat+bayoiu#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved August 24, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Charles Hanson Veeder", A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol. 2 (1988), pp. 809-810
  8. ^ a b c David James, III, "Germantown: Once Thriving and Socialistic", Minden Press, July 7, 1958, pp. 1-2
  9. ^ ”Respect for the Past, Confidence in the Future”, Webster Parish Centennial, 1871-1971, pp. 13-14
  10. ^ Brochure, Germantown Colony and Museum, 120 Museum Road, Minden, LA 71055
  11. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, p. 164
  12. ^ Winters, pp. 319, 408
  13. ^ Winters, p. 382
  14. ^ 1 p.m. News, KEEL Radio, Shreveport, Louisiana, February 2, 2011
  15. ^ "Heavy Ballot Is Cast in Primary Election Tuesday," Minden Herald, April 8, 1938, p. 3
  16. ^ a b Minden Press-Herald, June 21, 1972, p. 1
  17. ^ "Minden, La.". triptrivia.com. http://www.triptrivia.com/step4.php?Submit=Submit&State=19&StartCity=83666. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Connell Fort Dies Saturday Night at His Residence Her: Was Great Civic Worker and Builder of This City," Webster Signal-Tribune, March 5, 1937, pp. 1, 6
  19. ^ "Movie Stars Coming to Minden Thursday, Dec. 6", Minden Press, November 30, 1951, p. 1
  20. ^ "Thompson, Boucher Working for Trade School in Webster", Minden Herald, May 26, 1950, p. 1
  21. ^ "Proposed expansion at Local Trade School Unveiled', Minden Press-Herald, November 23, 1966, p. 1
  22. ^ Minden Press, November 18, 1954, p. 1
  23. ^ "Blackburn, William Jasper - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000510. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  24. ^ Press-Herald Staff. "Mary Eloise Martin Bolin". Minden Press-Herald. http://www.nwlanews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5822&Itemid=33. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "In memorium". Louisiana Supreme Court. http://www.lasc.org/community_outreach/in_memoriam/bolin_james.asp. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Boucher Company, Inc.: Profile of Jesse L. Boucher". boucherco.com. http://www.theboucherco.com/profile.html. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Parey P. Branton". Shreveport Times. http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/shreveporttimes/obituary.aspx?n=parey-p-branton&pid=153648526. Retrieved September 16, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Bridges Rites Held Monday: Former Mayor Succumbs to Heart Attack", Minden Herald, April 14, 1939, p. 1
  29. ^ Minden Herald, April 7, 1944, p. 1
  30. ^ "Official Returns Given for Minden Primary Election", Minden Herald, April 14, 1944, p. 1
  31. ^ *Minden Press-Herald, November 9, 1966, November 4, 1970, November 8, 1978
  32. ^ Election results, Webster Review and Signal Tribune, April 14, 1942, p. 1
  33. ^ Minden Press-Herald, April 6, 1974, p. 1
  34. ^ Allen J.M. Smith, "Doerge dies early today of heart ailment," Minden Press-Herald, April 17, 1998
  35. ^ "Judge Harmon Drew, Jr". Second Circuit Court of Appeal. lacoa2.org. http://www.lacoa2.org/Biographies/Drew.htm. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  36. ^ Minden Press-Herald, December 19, 1995
  37. ^ "Drew Family". mindenmemories.org. http://www.mindenmemories.org/Drew%20Family.htm. Retrieved June 5, 2011. 
  38. ^ "John C. Fleming homepage". fleming.house.gov. http://fleming.house.gov/. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  39. ^ "Connell Fort Dies Saturday Night at His Residence Here: Was Great Civic Worker and Builder of This City", Webster Signal-Tribune, March 5, 1937, pp. 1, 6
  40. ^ "Webster Parish hsitorian John Agan, "Webster Superintendents of Schools"". mindenmemories.org. http://www.mindenmemories.org/images/teachers/teachers.htm. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Gleason Final Rites Held at Evergreen Today", Minden Herald, July 27, 1959
  42. ^ "W.E. Gleason to Seek State Rep. Post", Minden Herald, August 3, 1959, p. 1
  43. ^ Minden Herald, May 12, 1955, p. 1
  44. ^ "Huckaby, Thomas Jerald". bioguide.congress.gov. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000901. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  45. ^ Minden Press, January 9, 1956, p. 8
  46. ^ Report of the Louisiana Secretary of State, "Official Returns of Open Primary Election September 16, 1978", Member of the Louisiana Public Service Commission, Fifth District
  47. ^ "Robert Floyd Kennon". sos.luisiana.gov. http://www.sos.louisiana.gov/tabid/405/Default.aspx. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  48. ^ "Coleman Lindsey". archives. http://files.usgwarchives.org/la/calcasieu/bios/lindseyh.txt. Retrieved July 10, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Ex-Mayor of Minden Dies at 83", The Times (Shreveport), March 5, 1955, p. 8-B
  50. ^ "Judge J.F. McInnis Will Retire Soon", Minden Herald, December 18, 1953, p. 1
  51. ^ "Mims Will Not Seek Another Term", Minden Press-Herald, undated 1975 article
  52. ^ Minden Press-Herald, October 27, 1971, p. 7
  53. ^ Minden Press-Herald, November 9, 1966
  54. ^ "Dr. E. Richardson, 75, Dies Wednesday in Ruston Hospital", Minden Herald, October 12, 1950, p. 1
  55. ^ Minden Press-Herald, November 7–8, 2006
  56. ^ "J. Berry Sandefur Buried Tuesday", Minden Herald, July 16, 1954, p. 1
  57. ^ "Sandlin, John Nicholas". bioguide.congress.vgov. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S000043. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  58. ^ "Obituary", The Times (Shreveport)
  59. ^ "Rites for A. D. Turner Held Saturday 3 p.m.", Minden Press, January 1, 1954, p. 1
  60. ^ "Watkins, John Thomas". bioguide.congress.gov. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000193. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  61. ^ Booth obituary, The Times (Shreveport), July 2, 1972
  62. ^ "Larry Brewer obituary", Minden Press-Herald, May 26, 2003
  63. ^ Jeff Clemons, sports editor, "Doherty" More than a coach," Minden Press-Herald, January 3, 1988
  64. ^ "Tate Passed Up by NFL Teams," Minden Press-Herald, April 29, 1987
  65. ^ Walter White (1995). A man called White: the autobiography of Walter White. http://books.google.com/books?id=bbMKSGD_TpUC&pg=PA323&lpg=PA323&dq=lynching+minden+LA&ct=result#PPA323,M1. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  66. ^ Bill Morrison. "Rockabilly Country News & Views". http://www.rockabillyhall.com/rcnv.html. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 

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