Nepal Sambat


Nepal Sambat

Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is the national lunar calendar of Nepal. [1] It was used throughout Medieval Nepal, and into early modern Nepal, until Chandra Sumsher decided to remove it in BS 1960. [2] It was started in 880 AD during the reign of King Raghav Dev to commemorate the payment of all the debts of Nepalese people by a Nepalese called Sankhadhar Sakhwa.[3] Local legend has it that he raised the funds through alchemy, turning the sand of the Bagmati river into gold dust. The Gregorian calendar is also widely used, on account of its international acceptance. Nepal Sambat has its own special relevance for Newars living in Nepal. Nepal Sambat is one among a few calendars native to Nepal. Most of the others either passed over time, or only maintain existence in the religious calendars called Patro.

This calendar was in wide official use during the Malla period in the Kathmandu valley. After the unification of Nepal, Saka Sambat took ground, and later on, during the premiership of Chandra SJBR Bikram Sambat were recognized for official use. This calendar, Nepal Sambat, is being revived, especially in the Kathmandu valley, over the last 3 decades. Moreover, the calendar was widely used by Newars for cultural and religious purpose inside the Kathmandu Valley because of its relation with festivals Jatra celebrated there. The government of Nepal recognized the Nepal Sambat as the national calendar in 2007. As a result, most Nepalese national newspapers have employed this calendar, together with the Gregorian calendar and the Bikram Sambat. On October 24, 2011 the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country´s national calendar[[1]].

Contents

Structure

Nepal Samvat , a lunar calendar, is a variant of "saka sambat" a Hindu calendar with main difference being, Nepal Sambat era lags behind the saka sambat by 802 years. It consists of 354 days per year, due to the fact that a lunar month has 29 or 30 days based on the movement of the moon. So it necessitates a month adhik mas to be added every third year. This calendar came into being and into official use during the reign of king Raghabdev, immediately after the completion of the Saka Samvat 802 (on 20 October 879 AD). The year 804 was approaching within a year and according to legend, his decision was guided by his fear of number 804, that some people still believe, brings misfortune. People with traditional belief still try to escape with number 8 that comes together with 12 (in Nepali -ath barha). Doing math correctly, 804 adds up to 12 and 804 means 8 along with 12.

Nepal Samvat is a unique calendar in the sense that all other calendars are named after some rulers or religious leaders. Nepal Samvat is the only calendar which is named after a country. This calendar is said to have been introduced by a common subject Shankhadhar Sakhwa by clearing on his own all debts owing to the state by the then subjects of Nepal. This calendar was in continuous official use Nepal (and not just in Kathmandu valley as is widely thought) and had significant influence, to be mentioned in the documents of Tibet, China, and kingdoms of northern India. After the unification of Nepal, under the Shah rulers, the calendar was in use as is evident by Sugauli Treaty. In 1903 AD, Rana prime minister Chandra Shamsher replaced Nepal Samvat with the Bikram Samvat, a Lunisolar calendar, which is in use as the official calendar in Nepal to this date. Since the founder of the Nepal Samvat, Sankhadhar Sakhwa has been recognized as a national hero of Nepal. Nepalese people especially, inside Kathmandu Valley,are also demanding to preserve as well as reintroduce the Nepal Samvat as Nepal's official calendar. The new year is celebrated every year in the religious Tihar festival, a day after Laxmi Puja. The Newars call the day Mha: Puja (mha: meainng body).

Year 2010 AD refers to year 1131 in Nepal Sambat, or 2067 in the official Bikram Sambat calendar.

Months of the year

The months of the year are[4] :-

Devanagari Roman script Corresponding Gregorian month
कछला Kachha lā November
थिंला Thin lā December
पोहेला Pohe lā January
सिल्ला Sil lā February
चिल्ला Chil lā March
चौला Chau lā April
बछला Bachha lā May
तछला Tachha lā June
दिल्ला Dil lā July
गुंला Goon lā August
ञंला Yen lā September
कौला Kau lā October

References

See also

External links


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