List of Romance languages


List of Romance languages

The Romance languages include 47 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken in Europe; this language group is a part of the Italic language family.

The classification below is largely based on the analysis provided by the Ethnologue. The ISO-639-2 code roa is applied by the ISO for any Romance language that does not have its own code. The Ethnologue classification is at one extreme of linguists, who are divided into 'splitters' and 'lumpers'. The Ethnologue classification produces a very detailed classification, more precise than many other linguists would accept, but valuable as a description of varieties. Top level groups are listed roughly East to West.

This article lists also the main groups of Romance-based Creole languages.

Eastern Romance

*Romanian- (SIL Code, RUM; ISO 639-1 code, ro; ISO 639-2(B) code, rum; ISO 639-2(T) code, ron), also known as Moldovan - (ISO 639-1 code, mo; ISO 639-2 code, mol): 28 million speakers Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Serbia
*Aromanian - (SIL Code, RUP; ISO 639-2 code, rup): 300,000 Greece, 100,000 Albania, 15,000 the Republic of Macedonia, and 10,000 Bulgaria.
*Megleno-Romanian: 5,000 Greece and the Republic of Macedonia - (SIL Code, RUQ; ISO 639-2 code, roa) - also known as Moglenitic or Meglenitic
*Istro-Romanian: 1,000 Croatia - (SIL Code, RUO; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*The language of the Morlachs: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro (extinct)

outhern Romance

*Sardinian: 300,000 Sardinia. Four versions recognized; all are included in ISO 639-1 code, sc; ISO 639-2 code, srd)
**Sardinian, Sassarese - (SIL code, SDC)
**Sardinian, Gallurese - (SIL Code, SDN)
**Sardinian, Logudorese - (SIL Code, SRD)
**Sardinian, Campidanese - (SIL Code, SRO)
*Corsican - (SIL Code, COI; ISO 639-1 code, co; ISO 639-2 code, cos)

Italo-Western Romance

Italo-Dalmatian Romance

*Dalmatian: Croatia, extinct in 19th century - (SIL Code, DLM; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
**Regional varieties: Ragusan, Vegliot, Zara/Zadar
*Napoletano-Calabrese: about 8,000,000 in central-southern Italy- (SIL Code, NPL; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*Istriot 1,000 in Istria - (SIL Code, IST; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*Sicilian: 6,000,000 in Sicily, Calabria and Puglia - (SIL Code, SCN; ISO 639-2 code, scn)
*Italian: 60,000,000 in Italy; 3,000,000 in the Americas and 2,000,000 in Western Europe, Oceania and Africa- (SIL Code, ITN; ISO 639-1 code, it; ISO 639-2 code, ita). Italian dialects:
**Romanesco: spoken in Rome
**Salentino: spoken in Salento
**Judeo-Italian: 4,000 Italy - (SIL Code, ITK; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*Corsican: related to Italian, and particularly Tuscan dialects

Western Romance

Western Romance languages comprise the Romance subgroup with the most languages and the most speakers. It includes three major international languages - French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as many regional languages, dialects and varieties.

Pyrenean-Mozarabic Romance

*Aragonese: 10,000 in Aragon.
*Mozarabic: Southern Iberia (extinct)

Gallo-Iberian Romance

Gallo-Romance

*Northern Italian languages (also called Padanian or Cisalpine)
**Gallo-Italic languages group (not be confused with the whole Northern Italian group)
***Emiliano-Romagnolo - (SIL Code, EML; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Ligurian - (SIL Code, LIJ; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
****Genoese
****Monegasque
***Lombard: Over 8,800,000 speakers in Lombardy and neighboring regions. Many regional varieties. Most speakers bilingual in Standard Italian - (SIL Code, LMO; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
****Western Lombard:
****Eastern Lombard
****Gallo-siculo (also related to Sicilian and Piedmontese)
***Piedmontese: 2,000,000 in Piedmont - (SIL Code, PMS; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
**Venetian group
***Venetian: 1,500,000 in Veneto and Venezia-Giulia - (SIL Code, VEC; ISO 639-2 code, roa)

*Gallo-Rhaetian languages
**Franco-Provençal: endangered - Italy: Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Foggia; France: Rhône-Alpes, Franche-Comté; Switzerland: Romandy
***Franco-Provençal dialects: see Franco-Provençal Dialect List
**Oïl languages, most non-French Oïl languages now have some legal or administrative status as languages distinct from French [ [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/ _re. Champagne] ] and Wallonia.
***Franc-Comtois: spoken in Franche-Comté and Romandy.
***French: 70 million Europe; 12 million Americas. Official language of France and its Overseas Territories, Monaco, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Canada, Haiti, Lebanon, Vanuatu, parts of India and many countries in Africa. One of the six official languages of the United Nations, and one of its two working languages. A language of administration in Syria, Cambodia and Laos. Spoken and studied in many other countries - (SIL Code, FRN; ISO 639-1 code, fr; ISO 639-2(B) code, fre; ISO 639-2(T) code, fra).
****French Dialects in Europe:
*****Aostan French (Italy)
*****Belgian French (Belgium)
*****Metropolitan French (France; Standard French Language)
*****Swiss French (Switzerland)
*****Meridional French (France)
****French Dialects in the Americas:
*****Canadian French (Canada):
******Acadian French
******Newfoundland French
******Quebec French
*****Cajun French (United States) - (SIL Code, FRC; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
****Zarphatic - Jewish French, extinct - (SIL Code, ZRP; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Gallo: spoken in Brittany
***Lorrain: spoken in Lorraine region and Wallonia (as "Gaumais").
***Norman: a group of languages in Normandy and the Channel Islands:
****Anglo-Norman language: used in England after the Norman conquest of 1066. Extinct.
****Auregnais: Alderney (extinct).
****Continental dialects: including Augeron, Cauchois, Cotentinais
****Guernésiais: spoken in Guernsey. Endangered.
****Jèrriais: spoken in Jersey. Endangered.
*****Sercquiais: spoken in Sark. Highly endangered.
***Picard - (SIL Code, PCD; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Poitevin
***Saintongeais
***Walloon
***Welche
**Rhaeto-Romance languages
***Friulian: 2 million Friuli, Argentina, Canada, Australia, etc. - (SIL Code, FRL; ISO 639-2 code, fur)
***Ladin: Dolomites - (SIL Code, LLD; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Romansh: 66,000 Switzerland - (SIL Code, RHE; ISO 639-1 code, rm; ISO 639-2 code, roh).

Occitano-Romance

There is a controversy about the classification of Catalan and Occitan languages. There is no consensus whether they belong to the Gallo-Romance or to the Ibero-Romance group or serve as transitional languages between those groups. Their grouping into a distinct group, Occitano-Romance languages, is disputed, too. Fact|date=August 2007

*Catalan: 6.5 million. Spoken in Spain, France, Andorra, Italy. The only official language of Andorra. Official in Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands - (SIL Code, CLN; ISO 639-1 code, ca; ISO 639-2 code, cat). Dialects:
**Eastern Catalan
***Alguerese: spoken in the town of Alghero in Sardinia.
***Balearic
***Central Catalan
***Northern Catalan (Roussillonese)
**Western Catalan
***Ribagorçan
***Southern Catalan (Valencian) (status of Valencian is a matter of dispute)

*Occitan: circa 2 million in France, Italy, Spain and Monaco - Six versions recognized; all are included in ISO 639-1 code, oc; ISO 639-2 code, oci) - all are from France:
**Auvergnat also known as Auvernhat: Auvergne province - (SIL Code, AUV).
**Gascon: Bordeaux (Bordèu) country - (SIL Code, GSC)
***Aranese: official in Aran Valley.
**Lengadocian: Toulouse (Tolosa) country - (SIL Code, LNC)
**Lemosin: Arrondissement of Limoges - (SIL Code, LMS).
**Provençal: Marseilles (Marselha) country - (SIL Code, PRV)
**Niçard: County of Nice
**Shuadit: Jewish, also known as Judeo-Provençal. Extinct - (SIL Code, SDT).
**Vivaro-Alpine: Southern France and North-Western Italy.
***Cisalpenc: Piedmont western valleys

Iberian Romance

This group includes the West Iberian languages - Astur-Leonese, Spanish, Galician, Portuguese and their dialects. According to some opinions Who|date=August 2007 it also includes Occitan and Catalan.

*West Iberian languages
**Astur-Leonese
***Asturian - (SIL Code, AUB; ISO 639-2 code, ast)
***Cantabrian
***Extremaduran - (SIL Code, EXT; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Leonese
***Mirandese: 5,000 Portugal - (SIL Code, MWL; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
**Caló - (SIL Code, RMR; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
**Spanish (Castilian):
***Spanish (Castilian): 360 million Spain, Americas. Official in Spain, United Nations, many countries of Latin America, and Equatorial Guinea. See Spanish dialects and varieties for an exhaustive list - (SIL Code, SPN; ISO 639-1 code, es; ISO 639-2 code, spa).
***Ladino (Judæo-Spanish) - (SIL Code, SPJ; ISO 639-2 code, lad).
***Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali - (SIL Code, SPQ; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
**Galician-Portuguese
***Fala: 10,000 in Extremadura, Spain - (SIL Code, FAX; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
***Galician: 3 million in Galicia - (SIL Code, GLN; ISO 639-1 code, gl; ISO 639-2 code, glg).
****Eonavian
***Judeo-Portuguese: extinct.
***Portuguese: 230 million Portugal, Brazil; 26 million Africa and a few thousands Asia - (SIL Code, POR; ISO 639-1 code, pt; ISO 639-2 code, por). Many mutually intelligible dialects, see Portuguese dialects for a full list.

Languages whose classification is unknown or disputed

*African Romance: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya (extinct).

Pidgins and creoles

The global spread of colonial Romance languages has given rise to numerous creole languages and pidgins. Some of the lesser-used languages have also had influences on varieties spoken far from their traditional regions. The following is a partial list of creole languages and pidgins, grouped by their main source language.
* Mediterranean Lingua Franca, influenced by the Romance languages of the Western Mediterranean and Arabic.
* French-based creole languages
* Portuguese-based creole languages
* Spanish-based creole languages

While not being pidgins nor creoles, English (see "Middle English creole hypothesis"), Basque and Albanian have a substantial Romance influence in their vocabularies.

For mixed languages based on Romance languages, see the main article on Mixed languages.

ee also

* Classification of Romance languages
* List of languages of Italy

References

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90058 Ethnologue's Romance language tree]


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