- List of Romance languages
Romance languagesinclude 47 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken in Europe; this language group is a part of the Italic languagefamily.
The classification below is largely based on the analysis provided by the
Ethnologue. The ISO-639-2 code roa is applied by the ISO for any Romance language that does not have its own code. The Ethnologue classification is at one extreme of linguists, who are divided into 'splitters' and 'lumpers'. The Ethnologue classification produces a very detailed classification, more precise than many other linguists would accept, but valuable as a description of varieties. Top level groups are listed roughly East to West.
This article lists also the main groups of Romance-based
*Romanian- (SIL Code, RUM; ISO 639-1 code, ro; ISO 639-2(B) code, rum; ISO 639-2(T) code, ron), also known as Moldovan - (ISO 639-1 code, mo; ISO 639-2 code, mol): 28 million speakers
Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Serbia
*Aromanian - (SIL Code, RUP; ISO 639-2 code, rup): 300,000
Greece, 100,000 Albania, 15,000 the Republic of Macedonia, and 10,000 Bulgaria.
Greeceand the Republic of Macedonia- (SIL Code, RUQ; ISO 639-2 code, roa) - also known as Moglenitic or Meglenitic
Croatia- (SIL Code, RUO; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*The language of the
Morlachs: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro (extinct)
Sardinia. Four versions recognized; all are included in ISO 639-1 code, sc; ISO 639-2 code, srd)
Sassarese- ( SIL code, SDC)
Gallurese- (SIL Code, SDN)
**Sardinian, Logudorese - (SIL Code, SRD)
**Sardinian, Campidanese - (SIL Code, SRO)
*Corsican - (SIL Code, COI; ISO 639-1 code, co; ISO 639-2 code, cos)
*Dalmatian: Croatia, extinct in 19th century - (SIL Code, DLM; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
**Regional varieties: Ragusan, Vegliot, Zara/Zadar
*Napoletano-Calabrese: about 8,000,000 in central-southern
Italy- (SIL Code, NPL; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
Istriot1,000 in Istria- (SIL Code, IST; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*Sicilian: 6,000,000 in
Sicily, Calabriaand Puglia- (SIL Code, SCN; ISO 639-2 code, scn)
*Italian: 60,000,000 in
Italy; 3,000,000 in the Americas and 2,000,000 in Western Europe, Oceania and Africa- (SIL Code, ITN; ISO 639-1 code, it; ISO 639-2 code, ita). Italian dialects:
**Romanesco: spoken in Rome
Salentino: spoken in Salento
Italy- (SIL Code, ITK; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
*Corsican: related to Italian, and particularly Tuscan dialects
Western Romance languages comprise the Romance subgroup with the most languages and the most speakers. It includes three major international languages - French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as many
regional languages, dialects and varieties.
Aragonese: 10,000 in Aragon.
Mozarabic: Southern Iberia (extinct)
Northern Italian languages(also called Padanian or Cisalpine)
Gallo-Italic languagesgroup (not be confused with the whole Northern Italiangroup)
Emiliano-Romagnolo- (SIL Code, EML; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Ligurian - (SIL Code, LIJ; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Lombard: Over 8,800,000 speakers in Lombardy and neighboring regions. Many regional varieties. Most speakers bilingual in Standard Italian - (SIL Code, LMO; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
Gallo-siculo(also related to Sicilian and Piedmontese)
***Piedmontese: 2,000,000 in
Piedmont- (SIL Code, PMS; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Venetian: 1,500,000 in
Venetoand Venezia-Giulia- (SIL Code, VEC; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
**Franco-Provençal: endangered - Italy:
Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Foggia; France: Rhône-Alpes, Franche-Comté; Switzerland: Romandy
***Franco-Provençal dialects: see Franco-Provençal Dialect List
Oïl languages, most non-French Oïl languages now have some legal or administrative status as languages distinct from French [ [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/ _re. Champagne] ] and Wallonia.
***Franc-Comtois: spoken in
***French: 70 million
Europe; 12 million Americas. Official language of France and its Overseas Territories, Monaco, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Canada, Haiti, Lebanon, Vanuatu, parts of Indiaand many countries in Africa. One of the six official languages of the United Nations, and one of its two working languages. A language of administration in Syria, Cambodiaand Laos. Spoken and studied in many other countries - (SIL Code, FRN; ISO 639-1 code, fr; ISO 639-2(B) code, fre; ISO 639-2(T) code, fra).
****French Dialects in Europe:
Metropolitan French(France; Standard French Language)
****French Dialects in the Americas:
Cajun French(United States) - (SIL Code, FRC; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
****Zarphatic - Jewish French, extinct - (SIL Code, ZRP; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Gallo: spoken in
***Lorrain: spoken in Lorraine region and
***Norman: a group of languages in
Normandyand the Channel Islands:
Anglo-Norman language: used in England after the Norman conquest of 1066. Extinct.
****Continental dialects: including
Augeron, Cauchois, Cotentinais
Guernésiais: spoken in Guernsey. Endangered.
Jèrriais: spoken in Jersey. Endangered.
Sercquiais: spoken in Sark. Highly endangered.
***Picard - (SIL Code, PCD; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Friulian: 2 million
Friuli, Argentina, Canada, Australia, etc. - (SIL Code, FRL; ISO 639-2 code, fur)
Dolomites- (SIL Code, LLD; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
Switzerland- (SIL Code, RHE; ISO 639-1 code, rm; ISO 639-2 code, roh).
There is a controversy about the classification of Catalan and Occitan languages. There is no consensus whether they belong to the
Gallo-Romanceor to the Ibero-Romancegroup or serve as transitional languages between those groups. Their grouping into a distinct group, Occitano-Romance languages, is disputed, too. Fact|date=August 2007
*Catalan: 6.5 million. Spoken in
Spain, France, Andorra, Italy. The only official language of Andorra. Official in Catalonia, Valencian Communityand Balearic Islands- (SIL Code, CLN; ISO 639-1 code, ca; ISO 639-2 code, cat). Dialects:
Alguerese: spoken in the town of Algheroin Sardinia.
***Northern Catalan (Roussillonese)
***Southern Catalan (Valencian) (status of Valencian is a matter of dispute)
*Occitan: circa 2 million in
France, Italy, Spainand Monaco- Six versions recognized; all are included in ISO 639-1 code, oc; ISO 639-2 code, oci) - all are from France:
**Auvergnat also known as Auvernhat: Auvergne province - (SIL Code, AUV).
Gascon: Bordeaux (Bordèu) country - (SIL Code, GSC)
***Aranese: official in
**Lengadocian: Toulouse (Tolosa) country - (SIL Code, LNC)
Arrondissement of Limoges- (SIL Code, LMS).
**Provençal: Marseilles (Marselha) country - (SIL Code, PRV)
Niçard: County of Nice
Shuadit: Jewish, also known as Judeo-Provençal. Extinct - (SIL Code, SDT).
Vivaro-Alpine: Southern France and North-Western Italy.
Cisalpenc: Piedmont western valleys
This group includes the
West Iberian languages- Astur-Leonese, Spanish, Galician, Portuguese and their dialects. According to some opinions Who|date=August 2007 it also includes Occitan and Catalan.
West Iberian languages
***Asturian - (SIL Code, AUB; ISO 639-2 code, ast)
***Extremaduran - (SIL Code, EXT; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
Mirandese: 5,000 Portugal - (SIL Code, MWL; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
Caló- (SIL Code, RMR; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Spanish (Castilian): 360 million
Spain, Americas. Official in Spain, United Nations, many countries of Latin America, and Equatorial Guinea. See Spanish dialects and varietiesfor an exhaustive list - (SIL Code, SPN; ISO 639-1 code, es; ISO 639-2 code, spa).
***Ladino (Judæo-Spanish) - (SIL Code, SPJ; ISO 639-2 code, lad).
***Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali - (SIL Code, SPQ; ISO 639-2 code, roa)
***Fala: 10,000 in
Extremadura, Spain - (SIL Code, FAX; ISO 639-2 code, roa).
***Galician: 3 million in Galicia - (SIL Code, GLN; ISO 639-1 code, gl; ISO 639-2 code, glg).
***Portuguese: 230 million
Portugal, Brazil; 26 million Africaand a few thousands Asia- (SIL Code, POR; ISO 639-1 code, pt; ISO 639-2 code, por). Many mutually intelligible dialects, see Portuguese dialectsfor a full list.
Languages whose classification is unknown or disputed
African Romance: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya (extinct).
Pidgins and creoles
The global spread of colonial Romance languages has given rise to numerous
creole languages and pidgins. Some of the lesser-used languages have also had influences on varieties spoken far from their traditional regions. The following is a partial list of creole languages and pidgins, grouped by their main source language.
Mediterranean Lingua Franca, influenced by the Romance languages of the Western Mediterranean and Arabic.
French-based creole languages
* Portuguese-based creole languages
Spanish-based creole languages
For mixed languages based on Romance languages, see the main article on
Classification of Romance languages
List of languages of Italy
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90058 Ethnologue's Romance language tree]
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