Foreign relations of Peru


Foreign relations of Peru
Peru

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Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Contents

Latin America

Argentina

Brazil

Bolivia

Chile

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute. Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

Colombia

Ecuador

  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[1] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[2]

Mexico

Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April of 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations. Peru is represented through its embassy in Mexico City, and Mexico has an embassy in Lima.

Paraguay

Uruguay

Venezuela

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bulgaria 1969 See Bulgaria–Peru relations
 Croatia 1993-01-12
 Denmark
 Finland 1963-01-25
 Kosovo 2008-02-22
  • Peru recognized Kosovo on 22 February 2008.[9] In response, Serbia withdrew its ambassador.[10]
 Italy 1874-12-23 See Italy–Peru relations
 Russia
  • Peru has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in Lima and an honorary consulate in the San Isidro District.
  • Both countries are full members of the APEC.
 Serbia 1967

Rest of World

Australia

Australia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Both countries have a expanding relationship in all areas. Australia is Peru's APEC ally. Relations are growing in not only trade but friendly relations between the people's of Australia and Peru. In 2004 Peruvian congress signed a Peru Australia friendship league. There are few memorandums of understanding signed between the two countries. Many Australian tourists visit Australia averaging 25,000 tourists a year from Australia. There are about 47,000 Peruvians in Australia.

Canada

Israel

Israel and Peru share a warm relationship and are great allies. Peru's embassy in Israel is the only diplomatic office Peru has in the entire Middle East.

United States

  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.

Illicit drugs

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km² at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.peru.com/noticias/portada20091117/66697/Peru-exportara-energia-electrica-a-Ecuador-hasta-abril-de-2010
  2. ^ http://www.peru.com/economiayfinanzas/noticias20091114/66081/Presidente-de-Ecuador-Rafael-Correa-agradece-cooperacion-de-Peru-en-crisis-energetica-
  3. ^ Paraguayan embassy in Lima (in Spanish only)
  4. ^ Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)
  5. ^ Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)
  6. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)
  7. ^ http://pe.embassyinformation.com/list.php
  8. ^ http://www.um.dk/da/menu/OmOs/Organisation/AmbassaderMv/Sydamerika/Peru.htm
  9. ^ "Perú decide reconocer independencia de Kósovoe". Peruvian Ministry of External Relations. 2008-02-22. http://www.rree.gob.pe/portal/boletinInf.nsf/mrealdia/C9B70437F80DBAF7052573F700710D15?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  10. ^ "SERBIA ORDERS WITHDRAWAL OF AMBASSADORS FROM BELGIUM, PERU". DiplomacyMonitor.com aggregate for Kosovo-related diplomatic communiques. Serbia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (linked to). 2008-02-26. http://www.diplomacymonitor.com/stu/dm.nsf/dn/dnEE718E3181E57B48852573FB005B305D. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  11. ^ Italian embassy in Lima (in Italian and Spanish only)
  12. ^ Peruvian embassy in Rome (in Italian and Spanish only)
  13. ^ Peruvian general consulate in Milan (in Italian and Spanish only)
  14. ^ Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: directions of Serbian embassy in Lima
  15. ^ Canadian embassy in Lima
  16. ^ Peruvian embassy in Ottawa
  17. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  18. ^ Israeli embassy in Lima (in Hebrew and Spanish only)
  19. ^ Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations: direction of the Peruvian embassy in Tel Aviv

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