- North American BT-9
BT-9/-14/NJ (NA-64 Yale) A U.S. Navy NJ-1 in flight, 1938 Role Trainer Manufacturer North American Aviation First flight April 1936 Primary user United States Army Air Corps Number built +260 Unit cost $20,000 Developed from North American NA-16
The North American Aviation BT-9 was a low-wing single piston engine monoplane primary trainer aircraft that served with the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) and other allied countries during World War II. It was a contemporary of the Kaydet biplane trainer and was used by pilots in Basic Flying Training following their completion of Primary in the Kaydet. In United States Navy (USN) service it was designated the NJ-1.
Design and development
Fabric covered the movable surfaces on the tail and wings, as well as the sides of the fuselage from just behind the firewall to the tail. The remainder of the aircraft was metal-covered and featured fixed (non-retractable) landing gear. The Army Air Corps purchased a total of 199 BT-9s, BT-9As and BT-9Bs. Many foreign countries also used variants of this aircraft.
The NA-64 model retained the fixed undercarriage layout and was built for the French in 1939-40. Just under half were delivered before France surrendered to the Nazis and the remaining aircraft were purchased by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). The RCAF named the type the Yale, and were used initially as intermediate pilot trainers and later as airborne wireless radio trainers. All were sold as scrap post-war but approximately 40 survive today, with about 15 in airworthy condition.
The NA-26, an improved model with retractable landing gear which became the prototype for AT-6 Texan advanced trainer, was developed from the NA-16 design. The Australian CAC Wirraway was also developed from the NA-16.
- Source: Warbirds
- Prototype aircraft, one built.
- Pre-production aircraft, one built.
- North American BT-9
- Two-seat primary trainer for the USAAC, 42 built.
- North American BT-9A
- Armed with two 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine-guns. 40 built.
- North American BT-9B
- Improved version, 117 built.
- North American BT-9C
- Similar to the BT-9B, but with some equipment changes, 97 built.
- North American BT-9D
- One prototype only, which lead to the development of the BT-14.
- North American NJ-1
- Two-seat primary trainer aircraft for the USN, powered by a 600 hp (447 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 radial piston engine, 40 delivered.
- North American NA-57
- France, 230 delivered. Export version of BT-9. First 30 served with French Navy. Most were captured and used by the German Luftwaffe.
- ASJA/SAAB Sk 14
- Sweden, 137 built. License built version of NA-16-4M 
- North American BT-14
- Advanced version, powered by a 450 hp (336 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 radial piston engine, USAAC, 251 delivered.
- North American BT-14A
- 27 BT-14s were converted to take the 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11 radial piston engine.
- North American NA-64 'Yale'
- France and Canada, 230 aircraft order. 111 were delivered to France before the surrender in 1940. The remaining 119 aircraft were acquired by the British and delivered to the RCAF, designated the 'Yale'.
- United States Army Air Corps (until June 1941)
- United States Army Air Forces (after June 1941)
- United States Navy
- Swedish Air Force (Sk.14)
Survivors/Aircraft on display
There are many surviving NA-64 Yales today because of Ernie Simmons, a farmer from near Tillsonburg, Ontario. Simmons bought over 30 Yales in 1946 and kept them on his farm until he died in 1970. These aircraft were subsequently auctioned in 1970, and have been restored by museums and warbird enthusiasts. Most of the Yales currently in existence came from the Simmons collection.
- Fundacion Museo del Aire de Honduras - BT-9C exported to Honduras as NA-16-2A
- No original aircraft, but several Yales have been painted as BT-14's
- Commemorative Air Force - ex RCAF Yale 3450 to be restored as a BT-14
- National Museum of the United States Air Force - ex RCAF Yale 3417 displayed as a BT-14
- Sk 14
- Swedish Air Force Museum -replica using parts from a Yale, Wirraway, and a real Sk 14
- NA-64 Yale
- Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association - ex RCAF 3399 - airworthy
- Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum - ex RCAF 3350 & 3400 (airworthy) and 3411 (on static display)
- Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum - ex RCAF 3396 - under restoration
- Bomber Command Museum of Canada  - ex RCAF 3404 - under restoration to airworthy
- Pima Air & Space Museum - ex RCAF 3397 - on display
- Reynolds-Alberta Museum - ex RCAF 3458 - on display
- Western Canada Aviation Museum - ex RCAF 3430 - on display
- Legend Of Aces Aviation - ex RCAF 3383 - under restoration to airworthy wireless trainer
- Legend Of Aces Aviation - ex RCAF 3456 - under restoration to airworthy
- plus a couple dozen privately owned in Canada, the US, and Europe
- Crew: two, instructor and student
- Length: 28 ft (8.5 m)
- Wingspan: 42 ft (12.8 m)
- Height: 13 ft 7 in (4.1 m)
- Loaded weight: 4,470 lb (2,030 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-975-53, 400 hp (300 kW)
- Maximum speed: 170 mph (273 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 146 mph (235 km/h)
- Range: 877 mi (1,411 km)
- Service ceiling: 19,750 ft (6,020 m)
- Related development
- Related lists
- Davis, Larry. T-6 Texan in Action (Aircraft Number 94). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-89747-224-1.
- Donald, David. American Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1 874023 72 7.
- Fletcher, David C. and MacPhail, Doug. Harvard! The North American Trainers in Canada. San Josef,BC/Dundee,Ont: DCF Flying Books, 1990. ISBN 0-96938-250-2.
- Hagedorn, Dan. North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ (WarbirdTech Volume 11). North Branch, MN: Speciality Press, 1997. ISBN 0-93342-476-0.
- Morgan, Len. Famous Aircraft Series: The AT-6 Harvard. New York: Arco Publishing Co., Inc., 1965.
USAAC/USAAF/USAF/Tri-service trainer aircraft Advanced Trainer Basic Combat Basic Trainer Primary Trainer (1924-1948) Trainer (1948-1990)"T-1", "T-2", "T-3" and "T-6" have also been assigned since 1962 in a separate sequence. USN/USMC trainer aircraft designations 1922-1948 Boeing
NB • N2B
(NC not assigned) • N2C
Piper Huff-Daland Howard North American
Keystone Langley Martin
(NM not assigned) • N2M
Naval Aircraft Factory Spartan
Fairchild Ryan Stearman New Standard Timm Consolidated Lists relating to aviation General Military Accidents/incidents Records
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