Maastricht


Maastricht
Maastricht
Mestreech
—  Municipality  —

Flag

Coat of arms

Simplified arms
Anthem: Mestreechs Volksleed
Coordinates: 50°51′4.47″N 5°41′26.65″E / 50.8512417°N 5.6907361°E / 50.8512417; 5.6907361
Country Netherlands Netherlands
Province Limburg (Netherlands) Flag.png Limburg
COROP South Limburg
Settled 500 BC
City rights 1204
City subdivisions 40 neighbourhoods
Government
 - Body Gemeenteraad Maastricht
 - Mayor Onno Hoes (VVD)
Area(2006)
 - Total 60.06 km2 (23.2 sq mi)
 - Land 56.80 km2 (21.9 sq mi)
 - Water 3.26 km2 (1.3 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2010)
 - Total 118,523
 - Density 1,957/km2 (5,068.6/sq mi)
 - Demonym (Dutch) Maastrichtenaar;
(Limb.) Mestreechteneer or Sjeng
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code(s) 6200 AA - 6229 ZZ
Area code(s) 043
Twin Cities
 - Liège Belgium
 - Koblenz Germany
 - Rama Nicaragua
Website http://www.maastricht.nl/

Coordinates: 50°51′4.47″N 5°41′26.65″E / 50.8512417°N 5.6907361°E / 50.8512417; 5.6907361

Maastricht ([maːˈstʁɪçt] (southern Dutch) or [maːˈstɾɪxt] ( listen) (northern); Limburgish (incl. Maastrichtian) Mestreech [məˈstʁeːç]; French Maëstricht (archaic); Spanish Mastrique (archaic)) is a city in the Netherlands. It is located in the southern part of the Dutch province of Limburg, of which it is the capital.

In Dutch, a resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, colloquially, Sjeng (derived from the formerly popular French name Jean).

Maastricht is widely known as a city of history, culture, local folklore and education.[1] The town is popular with tourists for shopping and recreation. Maastricht is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[2] The city has a large growing international student population.

Contents

Location

Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river (Dutch: Maas) in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border (with both the Dutch-speaking Flemish and French-speaking Walloon region within easy reach from the city centre) and near the German border. The city is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, the Euregio that includes Aachen, Hasselt and Liège in respectively Germany and Belgium.

History

Etymology

The name Maastricht is derived from Latin Trajectum ad Mosam (or Mosae Trajectum), meaning 'crossing at the Meuse', and referring to the bridge built by the Romans during the reign of Augustus Caesar. The Latin name first appears in medieval documents and it is not known whether this was Maastricht's official name during Roman times.

'Oldest city in the Netherlands' dispute

There is some debate as to whether Maastricht is the oldest city in the Netherlands. Some people consider Nijmegen the oldest, mainly because it was the first settlement in the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. Maastricht never did, but it may be considerably older as a settlement. In addition, Maastricht can claim uninterrupted habitation since Roman times. A large number of archeological finds confirms this. Nijmegen has a gap in its history: there is practically no evidence of habitation in the early Middle Ages.

Early history

Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht (Belvédère excavations). Of a later date are Paleolithic remains, between eight and 25 thousand years old. Celts lived here 500 years before the Romans came, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and therefore easy to cross.

Roman roads around Traiectum ad Mosam
View of Maastricht, coloured engraving by Philippo Bellomonte, 1580/82
Maquette of Maastricht in 1750

The Romans built a bridge over the Meuse, and a road that connected Bavay and Tongeren, the capitals of the Nervians and Tungri, with Cologne, the capital of the Ubians. Roman Maastricht was probably small. Remains of the bridge, walls, a religious shrine, a granary and a Roman bath have been excavated.

The Armenian-born Saint Servatius was the first bishop of Maastricht. Allegedly, he built the first church on the site of a roman temple within the Roman castrum, the site of the present-day Basilica of Our Lady. The city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost this position in the 8th century to nearby Liège.

Middle Ages

In the early Middle Ages Maastricht was, along with Aachen, part of the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. In the 12th century the town flourished culturally. The two main churches were largely rebuilt and redecorated. Maastricht Romanesque stone sculpture is regarded as one of the highlights of Mosan art. Around the same time, the poet Henric van Veldeke wrote a legend of Saint Servatius, one of the earliest works in Dutch literature.

Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority, with both the bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. Maastricht received city rights in 1204. Soon afterwards the first ring of Medieval walls were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained an important centre for trade and manufacturing (wool, leather), although gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity in the 15th century, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century.

In 1579 the city was sacked by the Spanish army under general Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. For over fifty years the Spanish crown took over the role of the dukes of Brabant in Maastricht. In 1632 the Spanish were replaced by the Dutch States General when the city was conquered by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.

Bulwark of the Netherlands

The important strategic location of Maastricht in the Dutch Republic resulted in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city during the 16th-19th centuries. The Spanish and Dutch garrisons were an important factor in the city's economy.

An important event, known as the Siege of Maastricht, took place in 1673 during the Franco-Dutch War. In June 1673, Louis XIV laid siege of the city because French battle supply lines were being threatened. During this siege, Vauban, the famous French military engineer, developed a new strategy in order to break down the strong fortifications surrounding Maastricht. His systematic approach remained the standard method of attacking fortresses until the 20th century. On 25 June 1673, while preparing to storm the city, Captain-Lieutenant Charles de Batz de Castelmore, also known as Comte d'Artagnan, was killed by a musket shot outside Tongerse Poort. This event was immortalized in Alexandre Dumas' novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne, part of the D'Artagnan Romances (D'Artagnan is one of the Mousquetaires du Roi ('Three Musketeers') in this series).

French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678. It was subsequently restored to Dutch rule but in 1748 the French again took the city after the Second Siege of Maastricht during the War of Austrian Succession. The French returned once more in 1794, when Maastricht was annexed and became a French city of what would become the First French Empire. For 20 years Maastricht was the capital of the French département of Meuse-Inférieure.

Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Map of the Netherlands in 1843

After the Napoleonic era, Maastricht became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. It was made capital of the newly formed Province of Limburg. When the southern provinces of the new kingdom subsequently seceded in the Belgian Revolution (1830), the Dutch garrison in Maastricht remained loyal to the Dutch king, William I of the Netherlands, even though the surrounding area came under Belgian control. Arbitration by the Great Powers in 1831 allocated the city to the Netherlands. However, neither the Dutch nor the Belgians agreed to this and it was not until the 1839 Treaty of London that the arrangement became permanent.

Because of its eccentric location in the Netherlands, and its geographical and cultural proximity to Belgium, integration of Maastricht and Limburg into the Netherlands did not come about easily. Due to its proximity to the Walloon industrial basin, Industrialisation happened earlier in Maastricht than in other Dutch cities. Maastricht retained a distinctly non-Dutch appearance during much of the 19th century and it was not until the First World War that the city was forced to look northwards.

20th century

Maastricht did not escape the ravages of World War II. It was quickly taken by the Germans during the Battle of Maastricht in May 1940, but on 14 September 1944 it was also the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces. The three Meuse bridges were destroyed or severely damaged during the war.

The latter half of the century saw the decline of the traditional industries and a shift to a service economy. Maastricht University was founded in 1976. In 1992, the Maastricht treaty was negotiated and signed here, leading to the creation of the European Union and the euro.[3]

21st century

In recent years, under Gerd Leers, who was mayor from 2005 to 2010, Maastricht launched a campaign against drug-related problems. Leers instigated a controversial plan to move several of the coffee shops - where the purchase of soft drugs in limited quantities is tolerated - from the city centre to locations on the outskirts of town, in a bid to stop (foreign) buyers from causing trouble in the city center. Unsurprisingly, this coffee corner plan did not go over well with neighbouring municipalities.[4]

On a positive note, large parts of the city centre were thoroughly refurbished under mayor Leers, including the area near the main railway station, the Markt (market square), the Entre Deux and Mosae Forum shopping centres and the Maasboulevard (a promenade along the Meuse). Maastricht looks notably smarter as a result, and further large-scale projects are underway, such as the redevelopment of the Sphinx and Belvédère areas.

Culture & tourism

Sights of Maastricht

Maastricht is known for its picturesque squares, romantic streets, and historical buildings. The tourist information office (VVV) is located in the Dinghuis, a 15th-century former town hall and law courts building on the corner of Grote Staat and Kleine Staat. The main sights include:

Fortress of Sint Pieter on Sint-Pietersberg
Onze-Lieve-Vrouwewal
Vrijthof, Saint Servatius Basilica
Bassin harbour
The small Jeker river
Stadspark Maastricht
Sint Pietersberg
  • City Fortifications, including:
    • Helpoort - a 13th century town gate, the oldest in the Netherlands.
    • fragments of the first and second medieval city walls.
    • Hoge Fronten (or Linie van Du Moulin) - remnants of 17th and 18th century fortifications with a number of well-preserved bastions and an early 19th century fortress Fort Willem.
    • Casemates - underground network of tunnels, built as sheltered emplacements for guns and cannons. These tunnels run for several miles underneath the city's fortifications. Guided tours available.
  • Binnenstad - inner city shopping district, including Grote and Kleine Staat, and high-end shopping street Stokstraat. Maastricht is also well known for its cafés, pubs and restaurants.
    • Dinghuis - Medieval courthouse with an early Renaissance façade.
    • Entre Deux - a recently rebuilt shopping centre which has won several international awards.[5] It includes a book store located inside a former 13th century Dominican church. In 2008, British newspaper The Guardian proclaimed this the world's most beautiful bookshop.[6]
  • Vrijthof - the best-known square in the city. Sights:
  • Onze Lieve Vrouweplein - picturesque tree-lined square with an abundance of pavement cafes. Sights:
    • Basilica of Our Lady - 11th-century church.
    • Derlon Museumkelder - a small museum in the basement of hotel Derlon with Roman remains.
  • Markt - the Market Square was completely refurbished in 2006-2007 and is now virtually traffic free. Sights include:
    • Town hall - built in the 17th century by Pieter Post.
    • Mosae Forum - a brand new shopping center and civic building designed by Jo Coenen and Bruno Albert. Citroën Miniature Cars, the world's largest exposition of Citroën miniature cars, is inside the Mosae Forum parking garage below the square.
  • Bassin - a restored early 19th century inner harbor with restaurants and cafés. The surroundings are currently being developed into a cultural hotspot.
  • Jekerkwartier - a picturesque neighbourhood with the small river Jeker popping up between old houses and remnants of city walls.
  • Wyck - the old quarter on the right bank of the Meuse river. Rechtstraat is the main shopping street in Wyck with a mix of specialty shops, art galleries and restaurants.
  • Parks - there are various parks in Maastricht. Of particular note are the following:
    • Stadspark - the main public park on the West bank of the river.
    • Monsigneur Nolenspark - extension of Stadspark with remnants of medieval city walls.
    • Aldenhofpark - another extension of Stadspark with statue of d'Artagnan.
    • Charles Eykpark - modern park between the public library and Bonnefanten Museum on the East bank of the Meuse river
    • Griendpark - modern park on the East bank of the river with inline-skating and skateboarding course.
  • Sint-Pietersberg - a modest hill just South of the city, peaking at 171 metres (561 ft) above sea level. Sights:
    • Fort Sint-Pieter - an 18th-century fortress fully restored in 2008.
    • Grotten Sint-Pietersberg (caves) - sandstone (marl) quarry with vast network of man-made tunnels. Guided tours are available.
    • Ruine Lichtenberg - a farmstead containing a ruined medieval castle keep.
    • D'n Observant - artificial hilltop on Sint-Pietersberg.
  • Sint Servaasbrug, the oldest bridge in the Netherlands

Museums in Maastricht

Museum aan het Vrijthof
  • Bonnefanten Museum - the foremost museum for old masters and contemporary fine art in the province of Limburg. The collection features Medieval sculpture, early-Italian painting, Southern Netherlandish painting, and contemporary art.
  • Museum aan het Vrijthof - local history museum in the 16th century Spanish Government building, featuring period rooms with 17th and 18th century furnishings, Maastricht silver, porcelain, glassware, Maastricht pistols, and a collection of 17th and 18th century Dutch paintings and 20th century paintings from local artists.
  • Treasury of the Basilica of Saint Servatius - religious artifacts from the 4th - 20th century, notably those related to Saint Servatius. Highlights: the shrine, the key and the crosier of Saint Servatius, and the reliquary bust donated by Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma.
  • Treasury of the Basilica of Our Lady - religious artifacts.
  • Derlon Museumkelder - a preserved archeological site in the basement of a hotel with Roman and pre-Roman remains.
  • Natural History Museum - exhibiting collections relating to geology, paleontology and flora and fauna of Limburg. A highlight in the collection is the skeleton of a Mosasaur.

Events & Festivals

  • The European Fine Art Fair - TEFAF is the world's leading art and antiques fair (March).
  • Preuvenemint - a large culinary event held on the Vrijthof square (August).
  • Magic Maastricht - a winter-themed fun fair and Christmas market held on Vrijthof square and other locations throughout the city (December/January).
  • Amstel Gold Race - international cycling race which starts in Maastricht (usually April).
  • Jumping Indoor Maastricht - international concours hippique (showjumping).
  • Maastrichts Mooiste - annual running and walking event.
  • Musica Sacra - a festival of religious (classical) music (September).
  • Jazz Maastricht - jazz festival formerly known as Jeker Jazz (Autumn).
  • Nederlandse Dansdagen - modern dance festival (October).
  • KunstTour - annual art festival (May).
  • Inkom - the traditional opening of the academic year and introduction for new students of Maastricht University (August).
  • Carnival (Dutch: Carnaval, Limburgish and Maastrichtian: Vastelaovend) - a traditional 3-day festival in the southern part of the Netherlands (February/March). In Maastricht largely celebrated outdoors.
  • 11de van de 11de - the official start of the carnival season (November 11).

Furthermore, the Maastricht Exposition and Congress Centre (MECC) hosts many events throughout the year.

Cannabis

On 16 December 2010, the Court of Justice of the European Union upheld a local Maastrict ban on the sale of cannabis to foreign tourists, restricting coffee shops to residents of Maastricht.[7] The ban did not affect scientific or medical usage. While the ban is now legal to enforce, its future is uncertain as the city council of Maastricht and other cities have voted against the planned "cannabis pass system".[8]

Language

Maastricht is a city of linguistic diversity, thanks to its location at the crossroads of multiple language areas and its international student population.

  • Dutch is the national language and the language of elementary and secondary education (excluding international institutions) as well as administration. Dutch in Maastricht is often spoken with a distinctive Limburgish accent, which should not be confused with the Limburgish language.
  • Limburgish (or Limburgian), is the overlapping term of the tonal dialects spoken in the Dutch and Belgian provinces of Limburg. The Maastrichtian dialect (Mestreechs) is only one of many variants of Limburgish. It is characterised by stretched vowels and some French influence on its vocabulary. In recent years the Maastricht dialect has been in decline (see dialect levelling) and a language switch to Standard Dutch has been noted.[9]
  • French formerly was the language of education in Maastricht and throughout the 19th century it was spoken by the upper classes. Between 1851 and 1892 a Francophone newspaper (Le Courrier de la Meuse) was published in Maastricht. Currently, the language is often part of secondary school curricula. Many proper names and some street names are French and the language has left many traces in the local dialect.
  • German, like French, is often part of secondary school curricula. Due to Maastricht's geographic proximity to Germany and the great number of German students in the city, German is widely spoken.
  • English has become an important language in education. At Maastricht University it is the language of instruction for many courses. Many foreign students and expatriates use English as a lingua franca. English is also a mandatory subject in Dutch elementary and secondary schools.

Education

Secondary education

Hotel Management School. Castle Bethlehem
  • Bernard Lievegoedschool (Anthroposophical education)
  • Bonnefantencollege
  • Porta Mosana College
  • Sint-Maartenscollege
  • United World College Maastricht

Tertiary education

Other

  • Jan Van Eyck Academie - post-academic art institute
  • Berlitz Language School Maastricht
  • Talenacademie Nederland

Economy

Private Companies based in Maastricht

ENCI quarry
Provincial Government Buildings
  • ENCI - First Dutch Cement Industry
  • Sappi - South African Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Mosa - ceramic tiles
  • BASF - previously Ten Horn, pigments
  • Hewlett-Packard - previously Indigo, manufacturer of electronic data systems
  • Vodafone - mobile phone company
  • DHL - international express mail services
  • Teleperformance - contact center services
  • Mercedes-Benz - customer contact centre for Europe
  • VGZ - health insurance, customer contact centre
  • Esaote (former Pie Medical Equipment) - manufacturer of medical and veterinary diagnostic equipment
  • Pie Medical Imaging - cardiovascular quantitative analysis software
  • CardioTek - manufacturer of medical equipment for Cardiac electrophysiology procedures
  • BioPartner Centre Maastricht - life sciences spin-off companies

Public Institutions

  • Administration of the Dutch province of Limburg
  • Meuse-Rhine Euroregion
  • Limburg Development Company LIOF
  • Rijksarchief Limburg - archives of the province of Limburg
  • Eurocontrol - European Organisation for the Safety and Operation of European Airspace
  • European Journalism Centre
  • European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA)
  • European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM)
  • European centre for work and society (ECWS)
  • Maastricht Centre for Transatlantic Studies (MCTS)
  • Expert Centre for Sustainable Business and Development Cooperation (ECSAD)
  • Council of European Municipalities and Regions (REGR)
  • European Centre for Digital Communication (EC/DC)
  • UNU-MERIT
  • Maastricht Research School of Economics of TEchnology and ORganization (METEOR)
  • Research Institute for Knowledge Systems (RIKS)
  • Cicero Foundation (CF)

Sports

  • In football, Maastricht is represented by MVV Maastricht (Dutch: Maastrichtse Voetbal Vereniging), currently playing in the Dutch first division of the national competition (which is actually the second league after the Eredivisie league). MVV's home is the Geusselt stadium near the A2 motorway.
  • Maastricht is also home to the Maastricht Wildcats, an American Football League team and member of the AFBN (American Football Bond Nederland).
  • Since 1998, Maastricht has been the traditional starting place of the annual Amstel Gold Race - the only Dutch cycling classic. For several years the race also finished in Maastricht, but since 2002 the finale has been on the Cauberg hill in nearby Valkenburg.

Politics

Election results of 2006: council seats
Party Seats Compared to 2002
PvdA 13 +5
CDA 7 -4
GroenLinks 5 0
VVD 3(4) -1
SP 3 +1
Senioren 3 0
D66 2 0
Stadsbelangen 2 -1
Liberalen Maastricht 1 0
Total 39

The municipal government of Maastricht consists of a city council, a mayor and a number of aldermen. The city council, a 39-member legislative body directly elected for four years, appoints the aldermen on the basis of a coalition agreement between two or more parties after each election. The 2006 municipal elections in the Netherlands were, as often, dominated by national politics and led to a shift from right to left throughout the country. In Maastricht, the traditional broad governing coalition of Christian Democrats (CDA), Labour (PvdA), Greens (GreenLeft) and Liberals (VVD) was replaced by a centre-left coalition of Labour, Christian Democrats and Greens. Two Labour aldermen were appointed, along with one Christian Democrat and one Green alderman. Due to internal disagreements, one of the VVD council members left the party in 2005 and formed a new liberal group in 2006 (Liberalen Maastricht). The other opposition parties in the current city council are the Socialist Party (SP), the Democrats (D66) and two local parties (Stadsbelangen Mestreech (SBM) and the Seniorenpartij).

The aldermen and the mayor make up the executive branch of the municipal government. The current mayor of Maastricht is Onno Hoes, a Liberal (VVD), who was appointed after the popular previous mayor, Gerd Leers (CDA), decided to step down in January 2010 following the 'Bulgarian Villa' affair.

Former mayor of Maastricht Gerd Leers

One controversial issue which has characterized Maastricht politics for years and which has also affected national and even international politics, is the city's approach to soft drug policy. Under the pragmatic Dutch soft drug policy, a policy of non-enforcement, individuals may buy and use cannabis from 'coffeeshops' (cannabis bars) under certain conditions. Maastricht, like many other border towns, has seen a growing influx of 'drug tourists', mainly young people from Belgium, France and Germany, who provide a large amount of revenue for the coffeeshops in the city centre. The city government, most notably ex-mayor Leers, have been actively promoting drug policy reform in order to deal with its negative side effects.

Under one of the latest proposals, known as the 'Coffee Corner Plan' and proposed by then-mayor Leers,[10] the city council unanimously voted in November 2008 to relocate most of its coffeeshops from the city centre to the edge of town, where the sale and use of cannabis can more easily be monitored. The purpose of this plan was to reduce the impact of drug tourism on the city centre, such as parking problems and the more serious issue of the illegal sale of hard drugs in the vicinity of the coffeeshops. The Coffee Corner Plan, however, has met with fierce opposition from neighbouring municipalities and from national government, where the Christian Democrats take a notably more conservative approach to soft drugs than their local party and mayor. Bordering towns and the federal government in Belgium have also opposed the city's policy, citing Maastricht's plan to move the coffeeshops towards the Belgian borders as a violation of European law. The plan has been the subject of various legal challenges and has not yet been carried out.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Maastricht is twinned with:

Other relations

Neighbourhoods

Typical street Jekerkwartier

Maastricht consists of five districts and over 40 neighbourhoods. Each neighbourhood has a number which corresponds to its postal code.

  1. Maastricht Centrum (Binnenstad, Jekerkwartier, Kommelkwartier, Statenkwartier, Boschstraatkwartier, Sint Maartenspoort, Wyck-Céramique)
  2. South-West (Villapark, Jekerdal, Biesland, Campagne, Wolder, Sint Pieter)
  3. North-West (Brusselsepoort, Mariaberg, Belfort, Pottenberg, Malpertuis, Caberg, Malberg, Dousberg-Hazendans, Daalhof, Boschpoort, Bosscherveld, Frontenkwartier, Belvédère, Lanakerveld)
  4. North-East (Beatrixhaven, Borgharen, Itteren, Meerssenhoven, Wyckerpoort, Wittevrouwenveld, Nazareth, Limmel, Amby)
  5. South-East (Randwyck, Heugem, Heugemerveld, Scharn, Heer, De Heeg, Vroendaal)

The neighbourhoods of Itteren, Borgharen, Limmel, Amby, Heer, Heugem, Scharn, Oud-Caberg, Sint Pieter and Wolder all used to be separate municipalities or villages until they were annexed by the city of Maastricht in the course of the twentieth century.

Transport

By car

Maastricht is served by the A2 and A79 motorways. The city can be reached from Brussels and Cologne in approximately one hour and from Amsterdam in about two and a half hours.

A2 motorway in Maastricht
Maastricht main railway station

The A2 motorway that runs through Maastricht is heavily congested and causes air pollution in the urban area. Construction of a two-level tunnel designed to solve these problems is scheduled to start in 2011 and last until 2016.[11]

In spite of several large underground car parks, parking in the city centre forms a major problem during weekends and bank holidays due to the large numbers of visitors. Parking fees are high in order to incite visitors to use public transport or park and ride facilities away from the centre.

By train

Maastricht is served by three rail operators, all of which call at the main Maastricht railway station near the centre and the smaller Maastricht Randwyck, located near the business and university district. Services northwards are operated by Dutch Railways, including regular intercity trains to Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Den Bosch and Utrecht. The National Railway Company of Belgium runs south to Liège and Brussels in Belgium. The line to Heerlen, Valkenburg and Kerkrade is operated by Veolia. The former railway to Aachen was closed down in the 1980s. The old westbound railway to Hasselt (Belgium) is currently being restored. This line will be used as a modern tramline, scheduled to open in 2012.[12][13]

By bus

Regular bus lines connect the city centre, outer areas, business districts and railway stations. The regional Veolia bus network extends to most parts of South Limburg as well as to Hasselt, Tongeren and Liège in Belgium, and Aachen in Germany.

By air

Maastricht is served by nearby Maastricht Aachen Airport - locally known as Beek - with scheduled flights to Alicante, Berlin, Faro, Girona, Málaga, Pisa, Reus, Trapani and charters to popular holiday destinations during the summer season. The airport is located about 10 kilometres north of Maastricht's centre.

By boat

Maastricht has a river port (Beatrixhaven) and is connected by water with Belgium and the rest of the Netherlands through the river Meuse, the Juliana Canal, the Albert Canal and the Zuid-Willemsvaart.

Distances to other cities

These distances are as the crow flies and therefore not represent actual overland distances.

Local anthem

In 2002 the municipal government officially adopted a local anthem (Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Mestreechs Volksleed, Dutch: Maastrichts Volkslied) composed of lyrics in Maastrichtian. The theme was originally written by Alfons Olterdissen (1865–1923) as finishing stanza of the Maastrichtian opera "Trijn de Begijn" of 1910.[14]

Natives of Maastricht

See also People from Maastricht

Gallery

Vrijthof square, early morning
Panorama from Saint Servatius Bridge over Meuse river

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ VVV Maastricht
  2. ^ MAETN (1999 [last update]). "diktyo". classic-web.archive.org. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20051022022345/http://www.argos.gr/diktyoe.htm. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  3. ^ Gnesotto, N. (1992). European union after Minsk and Maastricht. International Affairs. 68(2), 223-232.
  4. ^ Coffee Corner: Dagblad de Limburger
  5. ^ Entre Deux
  6. ^ Top shelves: The Guardian
  7. ^ Court of Justice of the European Union, Marc Michel Josemans v. Burgemeester van Maastricht, case C‑137/09 (16 December 2010)
  8. ^ dutchnews.nl, Eindhoven joins opposition to cannabis pass system (09 February 2011)
  9. ^ Gussenhoven, C. & Aarts, F. (1999). "The dialect of Maastricht". University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies. http://www.let.kun.nl/gep/carlos/Maastrich2ipa.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  10. ^ Cannabis Cafes Get Nudge to Fringes of a Dutch City, The New York Times, 20 August 2006.
  11. ^ A2maastricht.nl
  12. ^ Tramlijn: Dagblad de Limburger
  13. ^ Tramverbinding tussen Nederland en België (Dutch)
  14. ^ Municipality of Maastricht (2008). "Municipality of Maastricht: Maastrichts Volkslied". N.A. Maastricht. http://www.maastricht.nl/maastricht/show/id=64886/notextonly=42282. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 

External links



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  • MAASTRICHT — ou MAËSTRICHT Ville des Pays Bas. Chef lieu de la province de Limbourg, Maëstricht (en néerlandais Maastricht) est située sur la Meuse. La ville devrait son origine à un pont romain fortifié sur le fleuve, le long de la route Boulogne Cologne. De …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Maastricht — (en el idioma de sus inhabitantes: Mestreech; en francés: Maestricht; en el siglo XVI se conoció como Mastrique) es una ciudad del sureste de los Países Bajos, capital de la provincia de Limburgo, junto a la frontera con Bélgica. Está situado en… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Maastricht — Aunque la forma tradicional española del nombre de esta ciudad de los Países Bajos es Mastrique, hoy se emplea la forma neerlandesa Maastricht (pron. original [mástrijt]): «La cumbre de Birmingham de jefes de Estado de la Comunidad Europea debe… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Maastricht — Maastricht, Stadt, so v.w. Mastricht …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Maastricht — (Maas Trecht), Hauptstadt der niederländ. Provinz Limburg, am Einfluß der Jaar in die Maas, über die eine 162 m lange steinerne Brücke (1683 erbaut) in die jenseits gelegene Vorstadt Wijk führt, Knotenpunkt der Eisenbahnen Aachen Antwerpen,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Maastricht — (Mastricht), das alte Trajectum ad Mosam, Hauptstadt der niederländ. Prov. Limburg, an der Maas, (1904) 36.146 E., Stadthaus (1659 65), Servatiuskirche, Athenäum; früher wichtige Festung. Unweit der Stadt der Petersberg mit durch ihre Labyrinthe… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Maastricht — er hovedstad i den nederlandske provins Limburg …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Maastricht — (izg. mȃstriht) DEFINICIJA 1. grad u Nizozemskoj, 111.000 stan.; mjesto u kojem je u prosincu 1991. potpisan ugovor o osnivanju EU 2. publ. pol. sinonim za odredbu o uvođenju eura kao jedinstvenog sredstva plaćanja u EU …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Maastricht — [mäs′triHt] city in SE Netherlands, on the Maas River: site of the signing of a treaty (1991) intended to unify the countries in the European Community economically (as through a common currency) and politically (as through joint defense); the… …   English World dictionary


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