Megalopolis (city type)


Megalopolis (city type)

A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis or megaregion) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The term was used by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book, The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book, The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in 1957, to describe the huge metropolitan area along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts through New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland and ending in Washington, D.C..

Contents

Definition

A megalopolis, also known as a megaregion, is a clustered network of cities with a population of about 10 million or more.[1][2][3] America 2050,[4] an organization sponsored by the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada.[1] Megapolitan areas were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech.[5] A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions.[6] The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model.[3]

Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.[7]

North America

The United States and Canada[1][8]

Name Population
in millions
2000
Population
in millions
2025
Major cities Related articles
Arizona Sun Corridor[9][10] 4.5 7.4 Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson Arizona Sun Corridor, Arizona, Valley of the Sun
Calgary-Edmonton Corridor[11] 2.4 3.5[12] Calgary, Edmonton Calgary–Edmonton Corridor
Cascadia 7.4 10.2 Boise, Eugene, Portland, Salem, Seattle, Spokane, Vancouver, Victoria Pacific Northwest, Ecotopia, Lower Mainland
Florida 14.7 21.4 Coral Springs, Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, Tampa Florida, South Florida, Central Florida, North Florida
Front Range 4.7 6.8 Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Taos Front Range Urban Corridor
Gulf Coast 11.7 15.8 Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, Mobile, New Orleans, Pensacola Gulf Coast
Great Lakes 53.8 63.7 Akron, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Hamilton, Indianapolis, Kansas City, London, Louisville, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Rochester, St. Louis, Toledo, Toronto, Windsor Great Lakes Megalopolis, Great Lakes region, Midwestern United States
Northeast 49.6 58.1 Allentown-Bethlehem, Baltimore, Boston, Harrisburg, Scranton-Wilkes-Barre,Hartford, Newark, New York City, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Portland, Providence, Richmond, Virginia Beach, Washington, Worcester Northeast megalopolis, Northeast Corridor, Northeast
Northern California 12.7 17.3 Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, Reno, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton Northern California, California megapolitan areas
Piedmont Atlantic 14.9 20.5 Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Chattanooga, Columbia, Durham, Greensboro, Greenville, Huntsville, Knoxville, Montgomery, Nashville, Raleigh, Winston-Salem Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion, Piedmont, New South, South Atlantic States, I-85 Corridor, Piedmont Crescent
Quebec City – Windsor Corridor 18 21 Hamilton, Kitchener, London, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Windsor Quebec City – Windsor Corridor
Southern California 24.9 34.7 Anaheim, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Tijuana Southern California, California megapolitan areas
Texas Triangle 16.1 23.6 Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Oklahoma City, San Antonio, Tulsa, Wichita Texas Triangle, TTC-35, International Mid-Continent Trade Corridor, I-35 Corridor

Mexico

  • The Megalopolis of Central Mexico was defined to be integrated by the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca and Pachuca. The megalopolis of central Mexico is integrated by 173 municipalities (91 of the state of Mexico, 29 of the state of Puebla, 37 of the state of Tlaxcala, 16 of Morelos and 16 of Hidalgo) and the 16 boroughs of the Federal District,[7] with an approximate total population of 35 million.
  • The "Corredor del Bajío" in Northern Central Mexico is a chain of settlements that stretches 334 km (208 mi) in four states (Querétaro, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Aguascalientes). Federal Highway 45 works as the backbone for this megalopolis, which includes 4 metro areas (León (ranked 7th nationwide), Querétaro (11th), Aguascalientes (13th) and San Francisco del Rincón (53rd)) and 5 medium sized cities (Lagos de Moreno, Irapuato, Salamanca, Celaya, and San Juan del Río). Route 45 runs through 5 more municipalities (Encarnación de Díaz, Cortazar, Villagrán, Apaseo el Grande, and Pedro Escobedo). This system of 21 municipalities has a population of 5.141 million people and high levels of growth. However, some other cities could be included in this megalopolis (such as San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato) since even if they are not located on Route 45 they are close enough to interact heavily with the system. It is expected that in 2040, this corridor will fuse with the megalopolis of Central Mexico.[13]

South America

Europe

  • Milan metropolitan area - Recognized by the OECD. (7,400,000 in Italy, that is more than one tenth of the national population). Potentially some parts of the Swiss Canton Ticino can be considered within the metropolis, thus making it a transnational city; this is not recognized by the OECD definition, though.
  • Attica - The megapolis of Athens, Greece, covering the most of the basin of the district of Attica. (4.5 million)

Asia

China

Emerging megacities in China (in decreasing order of population):

  • The central Liaoning city cluster in China. Within 150 km from its center Shenyang (7.2 million), it has Fushun (3 million), Anshan City (3.6 million), Benxi (1.5 million), Liaoyang (1.8 million), Yingkou (2.2 million), Panjin (1.2 million), and Tieling (3.4 million), with a total population of 23 million. And it can be further extended to Dalian (6.2 million), Fuxin (2 million) and Dandong (2.4 million). This area used to be the most industrialized region in China. It declined during 1980s-1990s, but in recent years, it has rapidly revived.

Indonesia

Japan

Korea

Pakistan

Philippines

Thailand

Taiwan

United Arab Emirates

Saudi Arabia

Africa

Australia

Largest megalopolises

Distribution of world population in 1994.

See below for a list of the world's largest megalopolises, in descending order of population using the most recent census available:

  1. Indo-Gangetic Plain: Delhi, Kanpur, Kolkata, Varanasi, Dhaka — 200 million.[citation needed].
  2. Pearl River Delta: Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Guangzhou, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Macau — 120 million.[17]
  3. Blue Banana: Dublin, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, London, Randstad, the Netherlands–Rhine-Ruhr, Frankfurt/Rhine-Main, Rhine-Neckar, Basel, Zürich, Milanβ — 90 million.
  4. Yangtze River Delta: Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi - 88 million.
  5. Taiheiyo Belt: Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima — 75 million.
  6. Great Lakes Megalopolis: Chicago, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Indianapolis, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Dayton, Columbus, Grand Rapids, Toledo, Akron, Rochester, Buffalo — 54 million.
  7. Northeast Megalopolis: New York, Boston, New Jersey, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, Hartford, Richmond, Norfolk — 50 million.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c http://www.america2050.org/megaregions.html
  2. ^ http://www.bnet.com/2403-13070_23-192951.html
  3. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 19, 2010.
  4. ^ http://www.america2050.org/about.html
  5. ^ http://www.mi.vt.edu/uploads/megacensusreport.pdf "Beyond Megalopolis" by the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech
  6. ^ http://www.surdna.org/usr_doc/The_Rise_of_the_Megapolitans.pdf
  7. ^ Tremble, Sam (May 30, 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. http://www.citypaper.net/articles/2007/05/31/fumbling-toward-portland. 
  8. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association.
  9. ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008. http://www.asu.edu/copp/morrison/megapolitan.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  10. ^ "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. 2006-04-09. http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0409merge0409.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  11. ^ "TD Economics: The Calgary-Edmonton Corridor". TD Bank Financial Group. April 2003. http://www.td.com/economics/special/alta03.pdf. Retrieved July 11, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Alberta Population Projections by Census Division 2011–2050". Alberta Finance and Enterprise. http://www.finance.alberta.ca/aboutalberta/population_reports/2011-2050-alberta-population-projections.pdf. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Population and living conditions in Urban Audit cities, larger urban zone (LUZ) (tgs00080)". Eurostat. July 2010. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/region_cities/city_urban/data_cities/tables_sub1. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  15. ^ UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'
  16. ^ http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/qy/550016.htm
  17. ^ a b Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/22/un-cities-mega-regions. 
  18. ^ http://www.bbw.gov.cn/staticpages/20090319/bbw49c2670d-2117.shtml
  19. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200009/02/eng20000902_49585.html
  20. ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward"". china-embassy.org. 2004-05-14. http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/1/t106401.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  21. ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/aug/aug30_globalcity.stm
  22. ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/july/jul20_cityregion.stm
  23. ^ M Shilowa to debate Gauteng's position on global city region, 29 Aug
  24. ^ a b , Australian Bureau of Statistics, 30 March 2010, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3218.02008-09, retrieved 10 August 2010 

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