- Jackson, Mississippi
City of Jackson — City —
Nickname(s): Crossroads of the South Motto: City with Soul Hinds County, Mississippi Coordinates: Coordinates: Country United States State Mississippi Counties Hinds, Madison, Rankin Incorporation 1822 Government – Type Strong Mayor-Council – Mayor Harvey Johnson, Jr. – City Council Quentin Whitwell, Chokwe Lamumba,
Kenneth I. Stokes, Frank Bluntson,
Charles Tillman, Tony Yarber,
Margaret C. Barrett-Simon
– Chief of Police Rebecca Coleman Area – City 106.8 sq mi (276.7 km2) – Land 104.9 sq mi (271.7 km2) – Water 1.9 sq mi (5.0 km2) Elevation 279 ft (85 m) Population (2010) – City 173,514 – Density 1,654.1/sq mi (638.7/km2) – Metro 539,057 Time zone CST (UTC-6) – Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5) ZIP codes 39200-39299 Area code(s) 601, 769 FIPS code 28-36000 GNIS feature ID 0711543 Website http://www.jacksonms.gov For additional city data see City-Data
Jackson is the capital and the most populous city of the US state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County (the town of Raymond is the other),. The population of the city declined from 184,256 at the 2000 census to 173,514 at the 2010 census. The 2010 census ascribed a population of 539,005 to the five-county Jackson metropolitan area.
The current slogan for the city is Jackson, Mississippi: City with Soul. Jackson is ranked 3rd out of America's 100 largest metro areas for the best "Bang For Your Buck" city according to Forbes magazine. The study measured overall affordability, housing rates, and more. The 14th annual "City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan America" ranks Jackson as the 23rd most dangerous city in America. The city is named after Andrew Jackson, who was still a general at the time of the naming but later became president. The city is the anchor of the Metro area.
The region which is now the city of Jackson was originally part of the Choctaw Nation. Under pressure from the US government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal from all lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although many Choctaws then moved to present-day Oklahoma, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. The area now called Jackson was obtained under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820. After the treaty was ratified, European-American settlers began to move into the area. Today, most Choctaws, who are part of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, live on several Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw, MS, 100 mi (160 km) northeast of the city.
Founding and antebellum period (to 1860)
The area that is now Jackson was initially referred to as Parkerville and was settled by Louis LeFleur, a French Canadian trader, along the historic Natchez Trace trade route. The area then became known as LeFleur's Bluff. LeFleur's Bluff was founded based on the need for a centrally located capital for the state of Mississippi. In 1821, the Mississippi General Assembly, meeting in the then-capital of Natchez, had sent Thomas Hinds (for whom Hinds County is named), James Patton, and William Lattimore to look for a site. The absolute center of the state was a swamp, which forced the group to look close by for a new capital. After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in Hinds County. Their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, and proximity to the trading route Natchez Trace. And so, a legislative Act passed by the Assembly on November 28, 1821, authorized the location to become the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state (a swamp occupied this spot).
During the late 18th century and early 19th century, the area was traversed by the Natchez Trace, on which a trading post stood before a treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-native American settlers.
Jackson was originally planned, in April 1822, by Peter Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson, in which city blocks alternated with parks and other open spaces, giving the appearance of a checkerboard. This plan has not lasted to the present day.
The state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822.
In 1839, Jackson was the site of the passage of the first state law that permitted married women to own and administer their own property.
Jackson was first linked with other cities by rail in 1840. An 1844 map shows Jackson linked by an east-west rail line running between Vicksburg, Raymond, and Brandon. Unlike Vicksburg, Greenville, and Natchez, Jackson is not located on the Mississippi River, and did not develop like those cities from river commerce. Instead, railroads would later spark growth of the city in the decades after the American Civil War.
American Civil War and late nineteenth century (1861–1900)
Despite its small population, during the Civil War, Jackson became a strategic center of manufacturing for the Confederate States of America. In 1863, during the campaign which ended in the capture of Vicksburg, Union forces captured Jackson during two battles—once before the fall of Vicksburg and once after the fall of Vicksburg.
On May 13, 1863, Union forces won the first Battle of Jackson, forcing Confederate forces to flee northward towards Canton. On May 15, Union troops under the command of William Tecumseh Sherman burned and looted key facilities in Jackson, a strategic manufacturing and railroad center for the Confederacy. After driving the Confederate forces out of Jackson, Union forces turned west once again and engaged the Vicksburg defenders at the Battle of Champion Hill in nearby Edwards. The siege of Vicksburg began soon after the Union victory at Champion Hill. Confederate forces began to reassemble in Jackson in preparation for an attempt to break through the Union lines surrounding Vicksburg and end the siege there. The Confederate forces in Jackson built defensive fortifications encircling the city while preparing to march west to Vicksburg.
Confederate forces marched out of Jackson to break the siege of Vicksburg in early July 1863. However, unknown to them, Vicksburg had already surrendered on July 4, 1863. General Ulysses S. Grant dispatched General Sherman to meet the Confederate forces heading west from Jackson. Upon learning that Vicksburg had already surrendered, the Confederates retreated back into Jackson, thus beginning the Siege of Jackson, which lasted for approximately one week. Union forces encircled the city and began an artillery bombardment. One of the Union artillery emplacements still remains intact on the grounds of the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Another Federal position is still intact on the campus of Millsaps College. One of the Confederate Generals defending Jackson was former United States Vice President John C. Breckenridge. On July 16, 1863, Confederate forces slipped out of Jackson during the night and retreated across the Pearl River. Union forces completely burned the city after its capture this second time, and the city earned the nickname "Chimneyville" because only the chimneys of houses were left standing. The northern line of Confederate defenses in Jackson during the siege was located along a road near downtown Jackson, now known as Fortification Street.
Today there are few antebellum structures left standing in Jackson. One surviving structure is the Governor's Mansion, built in 1842, which served as Sherman's headquarters. Another is the Old Capitol building, which served as the home of the Mississippi state legislature from 1839 to 1903. There the Mississippi legislature passed the ordinance of secession from the Union on January 9, 1861, becoming the second state to secede from the United States.
In 1875 the Red Shirts were formed, one of a second wave of insurgent paramilitary organizations that essentially operated as "the military arm of the Democratic Party" to take back political power from the Republicans and to drive blacks from the polls. Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1876. The constitutional convention of 1890, which produced Mississippi's Constitution of 1890, was also held at the capitol. This was the first of new constitutions or amendments ratified in southern states through 1908 that effectively disfranchised African Americans and poor whites, through provisions making voter registration more difficult: such as poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests. These provisions survived a Supreme Court challenge in 1898. As 20th century Supreme Court decisions began to find such provisions unconstitutional, Mississippi and other southern states rapidly devised new methods to continue disfranchisement of most blacks.
The economic recovery was slow through the turn of the century, but there were some developments in transportation. In 1871, the city introduced mule-drawn streetcars which ran on State Street, which were replaced by electric ones in 1899.
The so-called New Capitol replaced the older structure upon its completion in 1903, and today the Old Capitol is a historical museum. A third important surviving antebellum structure is the Jackson City Hall, built in 1846 for less than $8,000. It is said that Sherman, a Mason, spared it because it housed a Masonic Lodge, though a more likely reason is that it housed an army hospital.
Early twentieth century (1901–1960)
Pulitzer Prize-winning author Eudora Welty was born in Jackson in 1909, lived most of her life in the Belhaven section of the city, and died there in 2001. Her memoir of development as a writer, One Writer's Beginnings (1984), presented a charming picture of the city in the early 20th century. The main Jackson Public Library was named in her honor.
The highly acclaimed African-American author Richard Wright, lived in Jackson as an adolescent and young man in the 1910s and 1920s. He related his experience in his memoir Black Boy (1945). He described the harsh and largely terror-filled life poor African Americans experienced in the South and northern ghettos under segregation in the early 20th century.
Jackson saw significant growth in the early twentieth century, as reflected in changes in the city's skyline. Jackson's new Union Station downtown reflected the city's service by multiple rail lines, including the Illinois Central. Across the street, the new, luxurious King Edward Hotel, long the center of Jackson society and Mississippi politics, opened its doors in 1923, having been built according to a design by New Orleans architect William T. Nolan. Nearby, the 18-story Standard Life Building, designed in 1929 by Claude Lindsley, became the largest reinforced concrete structure in the world upon its completion. Jackson's economic growth was further stimulated in the 1930s by the discovery of natural gas fields nearby.
Speculators began searching for oil and natural gas in Jackson beginning in 1920. The initial drilling attempts of the early twenties came up empty. This initial failure did not stop Ella Render from obtaining a lease from the state’s insane asylum to begin a well in 1924. Render found natural gas, but eventually lost the rights when courts determined that the asylum did not have the right to lease the state’s property. Businessmen jumped on the opportunity and dug wells in the Jackson area. The continued success of these ventures attracted further investment and by 1930, there were fourteen derricks in the Jackson skyline. Governor Theodore Bilbo stated “it is no idle dream to prophecy that the state’s share [of the oil and natural gas profits] properly safe-guarded would soon pay the state’s entire bonded indebtedness and even be great enough to defray all the state’s expenses and make our state tax free so long as obligations are concerned.” This enthusiasm was subdued when the first well’s failed to produce oil of a sufficiently high gravity for commercial success. The barrels of oil had considerable amounts of salt water which lessened the quality. However, all was not lost. The governor’s prediction is wrong in hindsight, but the oil and natural gas industry was a tremendous business for the city and state. The effects of the Great Depression were mollified by the industry’s success. At its height in 1934, there were one hundred and thirteen producing wells in the state. The overwhelming majority were closed by 1955.
During World War II, Hawkins Field in northwest Jackson became a major airbase. Among other facilities and units, the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School was established there, after Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands. From 1941, the base trained all Dutch military aircrews.
Civil Rights Movement in Jackson
Since 1960, Jackson has undergone a series of dramatic changes and growth. As the state capital, it became a site for civil rights activism that was heightened by mass demonstrations during the 1960s. On May 24, 1961, during the African-American Civil Rights Movement, more than 300 Freedom Riders were arrested in Jackson for disturbing the peace after they disembarked from their bus. They were riding the bus to demonstrate against segregation on public transportation. Although the Freedom Riders had intended New Orleans, Louisiana as their final destination, Jackson was the farthest that any of them managed to travel.
Efforts to desegregate Jackson facilities began before the Freedom Rides when nine Tougaloo students were arrested for attempting to read books in the "white only" public library. Founded as a historically black college (HBCU) by the American Missionary Movement after the Civil War, Tougaloo College brought both black and white students together to work for civil rights. It also created partnerships with neighboring mostly white Millsaps College to work with student activists. It has been recognized as a site on the Civil Rights Trail by the National Park Service. After the Freedom Rides, students and activists of the Freedom Movement launched a series of merchant boycotts, sit-ins and protest marches, from 1961 to 1963.
In Jackson, shortly after midnight on June 12, 1963, Medgar Evers, civil rights activist and leader of the Mississippi chapter of the NAACP, was murdered by Byron De La Beckwith, a white supremacist. Thousands marched in his funeral procession to protest the killing. In 1994, prosecutors Ed Peters and Bobby DeLaughter finally obtained a murder conviction of De La Beckwith. A portion of U.S. Highway 49, all of Delta Drive, a library, the central post office for the city, and Jackson-Evers International Airport were named in honor of Medgar Evers. During 1963 and 1964, organizers did voter education and voter registration. In a pilot project, they rapidly registered 80,000 voters across the state, demonstrating the desire of African Americans to vote. In 1964 they created the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party as an alternative to the all-white state party, and sent an alternate slate of candidates to the national party convention.
Mississippi continued segregation and the disfranchisement of most African Americans until after the Civil Rights Movement gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Acts of 1965. In June 1966, Jackson was also the terminus of the James Meredith March, organized by James Meredith, the first African-American to enroll at the University of Mississippi. The march, which began in Memphis, Tennessee, was an attempt to garner support for implementation of civil rights legislation. It was accompanied by a new drive to register African-Americans to vote in Mississippi. In this latter aim, it succeeded in registering between 2,500 and 3,000 black Mississippians to vote. The march ended on June 26 after Meredith, who had been wounded by a sniper's bullet earlier on the march, addressed a large rally of some 15,000 people in Jackson.
As a result of riots which followed the enrollment of James Meredith at the University of Mississippi, and residents taking down street signs to hinder the arrival of US Army forces whilst US Marshals held back rioters during the night at the University, the city of Jackson was placed under martial law by the Army for a 1 year period by order of Congress and President John F. Kennedy.
Gradually the old barriers came down. Since then, both whites and African Americans in the state have had a high rate of voter registration and turnout.
On June 26, 2011, a 49 year old James Craig Anderson was killed in Jackson after being beaten and robbed by a group of white teenagers in what has been described by the district attorney as a "crime of hate" and is under investigation by the FBI as a civil rights violation.
The first successful cadaveric lung transplant was performed at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson in June 1963 by Dr. James Hardy. Hardy transplanted the cadaveric lung into a patient suffering from lung cancer. The patient survived for eighteen days before dying of kidney failure.
Since 1968, Jackson has been the home of Malaco Records, one of the leading record companies for gospel, blues and soul music in the United States. In January 1973, Paul Simon recorded the songs "Learn How To Fall" and "Take Me To the Mardi Gras", found on the album There Goes Rhymin' Simon, in Jackson at the Malaco Recording Studios. Many well-known Southern artists recorded on the album including the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section (David Hood, Jimmy Johnson, Roger Hawkins, Barry Beckett), Carson Whitsett, the Onward Brass Band from New Orleans and others. The label has recorded many leading soul and blues artists including Bobby Bland, ZZ Hill, Latimore, Shirley Brown, Denise LaSalle and Tyrone Davis.
On May 15, 1970 police killed two students and wounded 12 at Jackson State University (then called Jackson State College) after a protest of the Vietnam War included overturning and burning some cars. These killings occurred ten days after the National Guard killed four students in an anti-war protest at Kent State University in Ohio, and were part of national social unrest. Newsweek cited the Jackson State killings in its issue of May 18 when it suggested that U.S. President Richard Nixon faced a new home front.
In 1997, Harvey Johnson, Jr. became the city's first African-American mayor. During his term, he proposed the creation of a convention center, in hopes of attracting business to the city. In 2004, during his second term, 66 percent of the voters passed a referendum for a tax to build the Convention Center. As a result of this vote, many new development projects are underway in Downtown Jackson.
Mayor Johnson was replaced by Frank Melton on July 4, 2005. Melton subsequently generated controversy through his unconventional behavior, which included acting as a law enforcement officer. A dramatic spike in crime also ensued, despite Melton's efforts to reduce crime. The lack of jobs contributed to crime.
2007 saw a historic first for Mississippi as Hinds County sheriff Malcolm McMillin was appointed as the new police chief in Jackson. McMillin was both the county sheriff and city police chief until 2009 when he stepped down due to the disagreements with the current mayor. Mayor Frank Melton died in May 2009 and City Councilman Leslie McLemore served as acting mayor of Jackson until July 2009 when former Mayor Harvey Johnson assumed the Mayor position.
Jackson is located on the Pearl River, and is served by the Ross Barnett Reservoir, which forms a section of the Pearl River and is located northeast of Jackson on the border between Madison and Rankin counties. A tiny portion of the city containing Tougaloo College lies in Madison County, bounded on the west by I-220 and on the east by US 51 and I-55. A second portion of the city is located in Rankin County. In the 2000 census, 683,723 of the city's 684,256 residents (99.7%) lived in Hinds County and 1,533 (0.3%) in Madison County. Although no Jackson residents lived in the Rankin County portion in 2000, that figure had risen to 172 by 2006.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 106.8 square miles (277 km2), of which, 104.9 square miles (272 km2) is land, and 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), or 1.80% of the total, is water.
Jackson sits atop the Jackson Volcano and is the only capital city in the United States to have this feature. The peak of the volcano is located 2,900 feet (880 m) directly below the Mississippi Coliseum.
Jackson possesses a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and mild winters. Rain occurs throughout the year, though the winter and spring are the wettest seasons, and the late summer and early autumn is usually the driest time of the year. Snow is rare, and accumulation very seldom lasts more than a day. Much of Jackson's rainfall occurs during thunderstorms. Thunder is heard on roughly 70 days per annum. Jackson lies in a region prone to severe thunderstorms which can produce large hail, damaging winds and tornadoes. Among one of the most notable tornado events was the F5 Candlestick Park Tornado on March 3, 1966 which destroyed the shopping center of the same name and surrounding businesses and residential areas killing 19 in South Jackson.
Climate data for Jackson-Evers International Airport Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °F (°C) 56.1
Average low °F (°C) 35.3
Precipitation inches (mm) 4.97
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.8 9.8 9.4 7.9 8.9 9.4 10.7 9.9 7.0 7.6 8.6 9.6 108.6 Sunshine hours 155.0 166.7 223.2 252.0 275.9 297.0 282.1 272.8 234.0 235.6 174.0 151.9 2,720.2 Source: NOAA (1981-2010), HKO (sun only, 1961–1990)
The bulk of the city is to the west of I-55, while a section of Jackson known as Northeast Jackson is to the east of I-55. In recent years there has been an effort to revitalize downtown Jackson, west Jackson communities, and south Jackson communities. Over 2 billion dollars of revitalization and development has been poured into the city from private redevelopment groups and federal and local funding.
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1860 3,191 — 1870 4,234 32.7% 1880 5,204 22.9% 1890 5,920 13.8% 1900 7,816 32.0% 1910 21,262 172.0% 1920 22,817 7.3% 1930 48,282 111.6% 1940 62,107 28.6% 1950 98,271 58.2% 1960 144,422 47.0% 1970 153,968 6.6% 1980 202,895 31.8% 1990 196,637 −3.1% 2000 184,286 −6.3% 2010 173,514 −5.8%
Jackson remained a small town for much of the 19th century. Before the American Civil War, Jackson's population remained small, particularly in contrast to those towns located along the commerce-laden Mississippi River. Despite the city's status as the state capital, the 1850 census counted only 1,881 residents, and by 1900 the population of Jackson had grown only to approximately 8,000. It was during this period, roughly between 1890 and 1930, that Meridian became Mississippi's largest city. By 1944, Jackson's population had risen to some 70,000 inhabitants. Since that time, it has continuously been the largest city in the state. Large-scale growth, however, did not come until the 1970s, after the turbulence of the Civil Rights Movement. The 1980 census counted over 200,000 residents in the city for the first time. Since then, Jackson has steadily seen a decline in its population, while its suburbs have evidenced a boom.
As of the census of 2000, there were 184,286 people, 67,841 households, and 44,488 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,756.7 people per square mile (678.2/km²). There were 75,678 housing units at average density of 721.4 per square mile (1,278.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.6% Black or African American, 27.8% White, 0.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.81% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, and 0.7% from two or more races. 0.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 267,841 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.24. Same-sex couple households comprised 0.8 % of all househoulds.
The age of the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,414, and the median income for a family was $36,003. Males had a median income of $29,166 versus $23,328 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,116. About 19.6% of families and 23.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over.
Jackson ranks number 10 in the nation in concentration of African-American same-sex couples.
Jackson is served by Jackson-Evers International Airport, located at Allen C. Thompson Field, east of the city in Flowood in Rankin County. Its IATA code is JAN. The airport has non-stop service to 12 cities throughout the United States and is served by 5 scheduled carriers (American, Delta, Continental, Southwest, and US Airways)
On December 22, 2004, Jackson City Council members voted 6–0 to rename Jackson International Airport in honor of slain civil rights leader and field secretary for the Mississippi chapter of the NAACP, Medgar Evers. This decision took effect on January 22, 2005.
Formerly Jackson was served by Hawkins Field Airport, located in northwest Jackson, with IATA code HKS, which is now used for private air traffic only.
Underway is the Airport Parkway project. The environmental impact study is complete and final plans are drawn and awaiting Mississippi Department of Transportation approval. Right-of-way acquisition is underway at an estimated cost of $19 million. The Airport Parkway will connect High Street in downtown Jackson to Mississippi Highway 475 in Flowood at Jackson-Evers International Airport. The Airport Parkway Commission consists of the Mayor of Pearl, the Mayor of Flowood, and the Mayor of Jackson, as the Airport Parkway will run through and have access from each of these three cities.
Runs east-west from near El Paso, Texas to Florence, South Carolina. Jackson is roughly halfway between Dallas, Texas and Atlanta, Georgia. The highway is six lanes from Interstate 220 to MS 468 in Pearl.
Runs north-south from Chicago through Jackson towards Brookhaven, McComb, and the Louisiana state line to New Orleans. Jackson is roughly halfway between New Orleans and Memphis, Tennessee. The highway maintains eight to ten lanes in northern part of city, six lanes in the center and four lanes south of I-20.
Connects Interstates 55 and 20 on the north and west sides of the city and is four lanes throughout its route.
U.S. Highway 51
Known in Jackson as State Street, roughly parallels Interstate 55 from the I-20/I-55 western split to downtown. It multiplexes with I-55 from Pearl/Pascagoula St northward to County Line Road, where the two highways split.
JATRAN (Jackson Transit System) operates hourly or half-hourly during daytime hours on weekdays, and mostly hourly on Saturdays. No evening or Sunday Service provided.
Jackson is served by the Canadian National Railway. The Kansas City Southern Railway also serves the city. The Canadian National has a medium-sized yard downtown which Mill Street parallels and the Kansas City Southern has a large classification yard in Richland. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Jackson. The Amtrak station is located at 300 West Capitol Street. Amtrak's southbound City of New Orleans provides service from Jackson to New Orleans and some points between. The northbound City of New Orleans provides service from Jackson to Memphis, Carbondale, Champaign-Urbana, Chicago and some points between. Efforts to establish service with another Amtrak train, the Crescent Star, an extension of the Crescent westward from Meridian, Mississippi to Dallas, Texas, failed in 2003.
Jackson is home to several major industries. These include electrical equipment and machinery, processed food, and primary and fabricated metal products. The surrounding area supports agricultural development of livestock, soybeans, cotton, and poultry. Major private companies based in Jackson include Ergon.
Publicly traded companies
The following companies are headquartered in Jackson:
- Cal-Maine Foods, Inc. (NASDAQ:CALM)
- EastGroup Properties Inc. (NYSE:EGP)
- Parkway Properties, Inc. (NYSE:PKY)
- Trustmark Corporation (NASDAQ:TRMK)
- Jackson is the see city of the Episcopal Diocese of Mississippi
- Jackson is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jackson
- Jackson is home to the original campus of the Reformed Theological Seminary
- Jackson is home to the Mississippi Annual Conference of the United Methodist Church
- Jackson is the headquarters of the Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A., founded by Charles Price Jones
- Jackson is home to Beth Israel Congregation, the only Jewish congregation in Jackson and the largest in Mississippi.
- Sikh Foundation of Greater Mississippi
Cultural organizations and institutions
- Ballet Mississippi
- Celtic Heritage Society of Mississippi
- International Museum of Muslim Cultures
- Jackson State University Botanical Garden
- Jackson Zoo
- Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Museum
- Mississippi Arts Center
- Mississippi Chorus
- Mississippi Department of Archives and History, which contains the state archives and records
- Mississippi Heritage Trust
- Mississippi Hispanic Association
- Mississippi Metropolitan Ballet
- Mississippi Museum of Art
- Mississippi Opera
- Mississippi Symphony Orchestra (MSO), formerly the Jackson Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1944
- Municipal Art Gallery
- Mynelle Gardens
- New Stage Theatre
- Russell C. Davis Planetarium
- Smith-Robertson Museum and Cultural Center
Government and infrastructure
In 1985, Jackson voters opted to replace the three-person mayor-commissioner system with a city council. Jackson's city council members represent the city's seven wards, and the body is headed by the mayor who is elected by the entire city.
Jackson's current mayor is Harvey Johnson, Jr..
The Mississippi Department of Corrections (MDOC) operates the Jackson Probation & Parole Office in Jackson. The MDOC Central Mississippi Correctional Facility, in unincorporated Rankin County, is located in proximity to Jackson.
Jackson is home to the international headquarters of Phi Theta Kappa, an honor society for students enrolled in two-year colleges.
Colleges and universities
- Antonelli College (1947)
- Belhaven University (1883)
- Hinds Community College's campuses in Jackson are the Nursing/Allied Health Center (1970) and the Academic/Technical Center
- Jackson State University (1877)
- Millsaps College (1890)
- Mississippi College (1826)
- Mississippi College School of Law (1930)
- Reformed Theological Seminary (1966)
- Tougaloo College (1869)
- University of Mississippi Medical Center (1955), health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi
- Wesley Biblical Seminary (1974)
Primary and secondary schools
Jackson Public School District operates public schools.
The district's high schools include:
- Bailey Magnet High School
- Callaway High School
- Career Development Center
- Forest Hill High School
- Jim Hill High School
- Lanier High School
- Murrah High School
- Provine High School
- Wingfield High School
Private secondary schools include:
- Christ Missionary & Industrial (CM&I) College High School
- Hillcrest Christian School
- Jackson Academy
- Jackson Preparatory School
- The Veritas School
- St. Andrew's Episcopal School (Mississippi)
Private primary schools include:
- Jackson Academy
- First Presbyterian Day School
- Magnolia Speech School
- St. Andrew's Episcopal Lower School – South Campus
- St. Richard Catholic School
- The Clarion-Ledger – statewide daily newspaper
- Jackson Advocate – weekly newspaper and oldest newspaper serving the state's African-American community
- Jackson Free Press – alternative newsweekly featuring local news, investigative reporting, and arts and entertainment coverage
- The Mississippi Link – weekly newspaper serving the state's African American community
- Mississippi Business Journal – weekly newspaper, with focus on business and economic development
- The Northside Sun – weekly newspaper, with focus on the northeastern portion of the Jackson Metropolitan area
- The Mississippian Daily Gazette – also often referred to as The Jackson Mississippian because of its location, circulated during the 19th century, a major newspaper during the Civil War
- The Standard – circulated during the 19th century, after the Civil War The Eastern Clarion moved to Jackson and merged with The Standard, soon changed name to The Clarion
- State Ledger – circulated during the 19th century, in 1888 The Clarion merged with the State Ledger and became known as The Clarion-Ledger
- The Jackson Daily News – originally known as The Jackson Evening Post in 1882, changed the name to The Jackson Daily News in 1907, purchased along with The Clarion-Ledger by Gannett in 1982
- University Press of Mississippi, the state's only not-for-profit publishing house and collective publisher for Mississippi's eight state universities, producing works on local history, culture and society
- Channel 3, WLBT: NBC
- Channel 8, WBXK: dark
- Channel 10, WBMS: independent (simulcast of WXMS)
- Channel 12, WJTV: CBS
- Channel 16, WAPT: ABC
- Channel 23, W23BC: Colours TV, America One (owned by Jackson State University)
- Channel 27, WXMS: independent
- Channel 29, WMPN: PBS/Mississippi Public Broadcasting
- Channel 34, WRBJ: The CW
- Channel 35, WUFX: My Network TV
- Channel 40, WDBD: Fox
- Channel 49, WJXF-LP: dark
- Channel 53, WJMF-LP: dark
- Channel 64, WJKO-LP: TBN
- 88.5 WJSU: Jazz; National Public Radio
- 89.1 WMBU: Moody Bible Radio
- 90.1 WMPR: Blues, Urban contemporary gospel, Talk, Variety
- 91.3 WMPN: Classical Music; National Public Radio
- 92.5 WQST: American Family Radio
- 93.5 WHJT (Star 93.5): Contemporary Christian music
- 93.9 WRXW (Rock 93-9): Modern Rock
- 94.7 WWJK (94-7 Jack FM): Adult hits
- 95.5 WHLH (95.5 Hallelujah FM): Urban contemporary gospel
- 96.3 WUSJ (US 96.3): Country Music
- 97.3 WFMN (Supertalk Mississippi): Talk, News
- 97.7 WRBJ-FM: Hip-Hop
- 98.7 WJKK: Adult Contemporary
- 99.7 WJMI: Hip-Hop
- 100.1 WLEZ-LP: Adult standards
- 100.5 WRTM: Urban Adult Contemporary
- 100.9 WJXN (K-LOVE): Contemporary Christian music
- 101.7 WYOY (Y101): Top 40, Pop
- 102.9 WMSI: Country Music
- 103.9 WYAB (103-9 WYAB): Talk Radio
- 105.1 WJDX-FM (Oldies 105.1): Oldies
- 105.9 WZNO: ESPN Radio
- 106.7 WSTZ (Z106): Classic Rock
- 107.5 WKXI-FM (Kixie 107): R&B, Soul
- 620 WJDX: Fox Sports Radio
- 780 WIIN: silent
- 810 WSJC: Family Talk radio
- 850 WQST: southern gospel
- 930 WSFZ: Sporting News Radio
- 970 WJFN: classic country
- 1120 WTWZ: bluegrass gospel
- 1150 WONG: gospel
- 1180 WJNT: news-talk
- 1240 WPBQ: news-talk
- 1300 WOAD: gospel
- 1370 WMGO: gospel
- 1400 WJQS: adult standards
- 1590 WZRX: CNN Headline News
Points of interest
Tourism and culture
The Rolling Stones sat "in a bar tippling a jar in Jackson" in their song 'Country Honk' on the 1969 album 'Let It Bleed'. "And on the street the summer sun it shines. There's many a bar-room queen I've had in Jackson, but I just can't seem to drink you off my mind."
"Jackson" is a song written by Jerry Leiber and Billy Edd Wheeler about newlyweds making the discovery that, after jumping much too quickly into marriage, the "fire" has gone out of their relationship. They both want to go to Jackson, where each looks forward to a new life free of the other. Although the song does not specify whether Jackson, TN or Jackson, MS is the destination, the lyrics do clearly reference gambling. During the period from the 1920s until the 1960s, illegal gambling casinos flourished on the east side of the Pearl River, along the original U.S. Route 80 just outside the city of Jackson, MS in Flowood. The infamous casinos might have been the inspiration for those lyrics.
In any event, the best-known single releases of the song include the 1968 Grammy Award winner by Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash, and the hit Nancy Sinatra and Lee Hazelwood version from the same year. Much later, the song was performed by Joaquin Phoenix and Reese Witherspoon (playing Johnny Cash and June Carter) in the 2005 film Walk the Line.
Those illegal casinos referenced (perhaps) by the song, along with bootleg liquor stores and nightclubs, made up the Gold Coast, a strip of mostly black-market businesses which operated for decades along Flowood Road, just across the Pearl River from downtown Jackson. Though it existed outside the law, the Gold Coast was a thriving center of nightlife and music, with many local blues musicians appearing in the clubs regularly. The Gold Coast disappeared after Mississippi's prohibition laws were repealed in 1966, allowing Hinds County, including Jackson, to go "wet".
In 1978, the USA International Ballet Competition was founded in Jackson by Thalia Mara, who is also the namesake of Thalia Mara Hall where the competition is held. The following year saw the first USA International Ballet Competition held as part of the worldwide International Ballet Competition (IBC), which itself originated in Varna, Bulgaria in 1964. The competition eventually expanded to rotating annual events between Jackson, Varna, Moscow and Tokyo. It was in 1979 that the event first came to the United States, to Jackson, where it now returns every four years. The rotation is currently among Jackson, Varna, Helsinki, Finland, and Shanghai, China. Jackson has been the host of the IBC in 1979, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. The next competition in Jackson will be in 2010. The United States Congress recognized Jackson and the USA IBC by passing a Joint Resolution in 1982 that designated Jackson as the official home of the USA IBC.
Periodic cultural events
- CelticFest Mississippi (annual, September)
- Crossroads Film Festival (annual, April)
- Festival Latino (annual, September)
- Jubilee!Jam (annual, June)
- Mal's St. Pattys Day Parade (annual, third Saturday of March, before/after March 17, the fourth largest in the nation with over 50,000 people)
- Sweet Potato Queens Million Queen March Weekend
- Mississippi State Fair (annual, held in October)
- OUToberfest (annual gay and lesbian festival, October)
- USA International Ballet Competition (every four years, June)
Downtown Jackson attractions
- Alamo Theater (The)
- Boddie Mansion (The)
- Bronze Statue of Medgar Evers
- Chimneyville Crafts Gallery
- City Hall
- Dr. A. H. McCoy Federal Building
- Jackson Zoo
- Mississippi Arts Center
- The Oaks House Museum/Boyd House
- Old State Capitol
- Russell C. Davis Planetarium/Ronald E. McNair Space Theater
- Smith Park – by the Governor's Mansion
- Smith Robertson Museum and Cultural Center
- Sonny Guy Municipal Golf Course
- Thalia Mara Hall
- War Memorial Building
Museums and historic sites
Jackson, Mississippi received its first Mississippi Blues Trail designation. The ceremony was held and the historic marker placed on the former site of the Subway Lounge on Pearl Street. The Subway Lounge was in the basement of the old Summers Hotel, one of two hotels available as lodging to blacks before desegregation when it opened in 1943. In the 1960s, the hotel added a lounge in the basement that featured jazz. In the 1980s, when the lounge was revived, it was catered to late night blues performers. In 2002, the Subway Lounge was filmed for a documentary entitled Last of the Mississippi Jukes.
- Battlefield Park
- Grove Park
- LeFleur's Bluff State Park
- Parham Bridges Park
- Sheppard Brothers Park
- Smith Park
- Sykes Park
Downtown Jackson renaissance
Currently, Jackson is experiencing $1.6 billion in downtown development. The public-private projects include new construction, renovation and adaptation of some existing buildings, including conversions into residential space; and improvements to public infrastructure and amenities.
Name Height Year Regions Plaza (formerly AmSouth) 197 m 1975 Jackson Marriott Downtown 178 m 1975 Regions Bank Building (formerly AmSouth) 177 m 1989 Standard Life Building 176 m 1989 Trustmark National Bank Building 166 m 1995 Lamar Life Building 158 m 1994
- Magnolia Roller Vixens – All Female Flat Track Roller Derby League. Formed in 2008.
Summer training camp
- New Orleans Saints – Jackson's Millsaps College is the former summer home for the NFL's New Orleans Saints.
- Mississippi Veterans Memorial Stadium – Concerts, Football (home of Jackson State University)
- Mississippi Coliseum – Basketball, Hockey, Track, Rodeo, Concerts
- Smith Wills Stadium – Baseball, Softball, Football, Soccer, Concerts (home of the Belhaven College baseball team)
Former professional sports teams
- Jackson Mets – former Texas League AA affiliate of the New York Mets (1975–1990); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Generals – former Texas League AA affiliate of the Houston Astros (1991–1999); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Diamond Kats – of the independent Texas-Louisiana League (later changed its name to the Central Baseball League) (2000); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Senators – Independent (2001–2004); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Calypso – Women's Soccer
- Jackson Rockers – Men's Soccer
- Jackson Chargers – Men's Soccer
- ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
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- ^ http://www.metrojacksoneda.com/demographics/JGA/index.htm
- ^ "Jackson, Mississippi | City With Soul". Jacksoncitywithsoul.com. http://www.jacksoncitywithsoul.com/. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ Forbes, December 2009 http://www.forbes.com/2009/11/30/cities-affordable-cheap-lifestyle-real-estate-housing-foreclosures_chart.html
- ^ "Navy Names Littoral Combat Ships Jackson and Montgomery" DOD press release. 25 March 2011
- ^ "History of Meridian, MS". Official website of Meridian, MeridianMS.org. http://www.meridianms.org/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- ^ Bob Ferguson (2004). "Choctaw Treaties – Dancing Rabbit Creek". Choctaw Museum of the Southern Indian. http://www.choctaw.org/history/treaties.htm#1830. Retrieved 2008-06-07. [dead link]
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- ^ William C. Davis, A Way Through the Wilderness: The Natchez Trace and Civilization of the Southern Frontier (New York: Harper Collins, 1995), 30.
- ^ George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984, p. 132
- ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp.12–13. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
- ^ Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001
- ^ Todd Sanders, Images of America: Jackson’s North State Street (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2009), 58 and 40.
- ^ Dudley J. Hughes, Oil in the Deep South: A History of the Oil Business in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, 1859-1945 (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1993), 67-86.
- ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Freedom Rides". http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis61.htm#1961frides.
- ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Tougaloo 9". http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis61.htm#1961t9.
- ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Jackson MS, Boycotts". http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis62.htm#1962jackson.
- ^ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Jackson Sit-in & Protests". http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis63.htm#1963woolworth.
- ^ Medgar Evers Assassination ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
- ^ History of Beth Israel, Jackson, Mississippi, Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life website, History Department, Digital Archive, Mississippi, Jackson, Beth Israel. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- ^ Edward Blum and Abigail Thernstrom, Executive Summary of the Bullock-Gaddie Expert Report on Mississippi, Apr 17, 2006. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
- ^ Sperling, Nicole (15 August 2011). "March Aims to draw attention to Slaying of Black Mississippi Man". Sacramento Bee. http://www.sacbee.com/2011/08/15/3838036/march-aims-to-draw-attention-to.html. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ Severson, Kimberly (22 August 2011). "Killing of Black Man Prompts Reflection on Race in Mississippi". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/us/23jackson.html?hp. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ "James Craig Anderson's Death: FBI Investigates Fatal Rundown Of Black Man In Mississippi". Associated Press. 18 August 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/18/james-craig-anderson-fbi-investigation_n_930155.html. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ Tim Spofford, Lynch Street: The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College, Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1988, pp. 17 and 19
- ^ "Jackson Mississippi Tourism- City of Jackson Travel, MS Vacations, Event Planning". Visitjackson.com. http://www.visitjackson.com/media-article.php?article_id=52. Retrieved 2010-01-31. [dead link]
- ^ Associated Press (July 27, 2006). "Mayor of U.S. city failing the hard test of crime prevention". Taipei Times. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2006/07/27/2003320632. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
- ^ USA Today (November 16, 2007). "Mayor appoints sheriff who arrested him – twice – as police chief". USA Today. http://blogs.usatoday.com/ondeadline/2007/11/mayor-appoints.html. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
- ^ Mississippi, University of (2003-12-12). "The Geology of Mississippi" (PDF). University of Mississippi. http://smartweed.olemiss.edu/nmgk8/curriculum/middleschool/eighth/geology_of_mississippi/The%20Geology%20of%20Mississippi.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
- ^ a b "http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/normals/1981-2010/products/station/USW00003940.normals.txt". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/normals/1981-2010/products/station/USW00003940.normals.txt. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- ^ "Climatological Normals of Jackson". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/n_america/us/Jackson_e.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-31.
- ^ "2000 Census Data on Same-sex couple households". Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/CTTable?_ts=266690849265. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000, United States Census Bureau
- ^ Ost, Jason. "Facts and Findings from ''The Gay and Lesbian Atlas''". Urban.org. http://www.urban.org/publications/900695.html. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ History of Beth Israel, Jackson, Mississippi, Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life website, History Department, Digital Archive, Mississippi, Jackson, Beth Israel. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
- ^ "Hinds County." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on September 24, 2011.
- ^ "MDOC QUICK REFERENCE." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on May 21, 2010. "3794 Hwy 468 - Pearl, MS 39208"
- ^ "GARRISON COULD BE BACK IN JAIL SOON." Biloxi Sun-Herald. February 15, 1995. C2 Coast and State. Retrieved on September 24, 2011. "[...]County jail to the central Mississippi prison near Jackson in mid- 1994."
- ^ "Post Office™ Location - JACKSON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on September 24, 2011.
- ^ http://blues.goodbarry.com/_webapp_2758974/Gold_Coast
- ^ "USA International Ballet Competition". Usaibc.com. http://www.usaibc.com/. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ "Jackson To Honor Fallen Juke Joint with Mississippi Blues Trail Marker" (PDF). Mississippi Development Authority. Archived from the original on October 4, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071004115054/http://www.visitmississippi.org/press_news/SubwayLoungeBluesMarkerRelease.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
- ^ "Last of the Mississippi Jukes – Photo Album". www.robertmugge.com. http://www.robertmugge.com/jukes_photos.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
- ^ "Downtown Jackson Partners". Itsdowntown.com. http://itsdowntown.com/. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- Official city website
- MetroJackson Chamber of Commerce
- The Jackson "City with Soul" Campaign
- Jackson Convention & Visitors Bureau
Municipalities and communities of Hinds County, Mississippi Cities Towns Unincorporated
‡ This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
Municipalities and communities of Madison County, Mississippi Cities Town Communities
Camden | Farmhaven | Gluckstadt | Kearney Park | Sharon
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
Municipalities and communities of Rankin County, Mississippi Cities Towns Village Communities Footnotes
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
State capitals of the United States AL Montgomery AK Juneau AZ Phoenix AR Little Rock CA Sacramento CO Denver CT Hartford DE Dover FL Tallahassee GA Atlanta HI Honolulu ID Boise IL Springfield IN Indianapolis IA Des Moines KS Topeka KY Frankfort LA Baton Rouge ME Augusta MD Annapolis MA Boston MI Lansing MN Saint Paul MS Jackson MO Jefferson City MT Helena NE Lincoln NV Carson City NH Concord NJ Trenton NM Santa Fe NY Albany NC Raleigh ND Bismarck OH Columbus OK Oklahoma City OR Salem PA Harrisburg RI Providence SC Columbia SD Pierre TN Nashville TX Austin UT Salt Lake City VT Montpelier VA Richmond WA Olympia WV Charleston WI Madison WY Cheyenne DC Washington1
AS Pago Pago GU Hagåtña MP Saipan PR San Juan VI Charlotte Amalie
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